GeneralUtility.php 157 KB
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<?php
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/*
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 * This file is part of the TYPO3 CMS project.
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 *
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 * It is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
 * the terms of the GNU General Public License, either version 2
 * of the License, or any later version.
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 *
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 * For the full copyright and license information, please read the
 * LICENSE.txt file that was distributed with this source code.
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 *
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 * The TYPO3 project - inspiring people to share!
 */
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namespace TYPO3\CMS\Core\Utility;

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use Egulias\EmailValidator\EmailValidator;
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use Egulias\EmailValidator\Validation\EmailValidation;
use Egulias\EmailValidator\Validation\MultipleValidationWithAnd;
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use Egulias\EmailValidator\Validation\RFCValidation;
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use GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException;
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use Psr\Container\ContainerInterface;
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use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;
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use Psr\Log\LoggerAwareInterface;
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use Psr\Log\LoggerInterface;
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use TYPO3\CMS\Core\Cache\CacheManager;
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use TYPO3\CMS\Core\Core\ClassLoadingInformation;
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use TYPO3\CMS\Core\Core\Environment;
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use TYPO3\CMS\Core\Http\ApplicationType;
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use TYPO3\CMS\Core\Http\RequestFactory;
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use TYPO3\CMS\Core\Log\LogManager;
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use TYPO3\CMS\Core\SingletonInterface;
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/**
 * The legendary "t3lib_div" class - Miscellaneous functions for general purpose.
 * Most of the functions do not relate specifically to TYPO3
 * However a section of functions requires certain TYPO3 features available
 * See comments in the source.
 * You are encouraged to use this library in your own scripts!
 *
 * USE:
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 * All methods in this class are meant to be called statically.
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 * So use \TYPO3\CMS\Core\Utility\GeneralUtility::[method-name] to refer to the functions, eg. '\TYPO3\CMS\Core\Utility\GeneralUtility::milliseconds()'
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 */
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class GeneralUtility
{
    const ENV_TRUSTED_HOSTS_PATTERN_ALLOW_ALL = '.*';
    const ENV_TRUSTED_HOSTS_PATTERN_SERVER_NAME = 'SERVER_NAME';

    /**
     * State of host header value security check
     * in order to avoid unnecessary multiple checks during one request
     *
     * @var bool
     */
    protected static $allowHostHeaderValue = false;

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    /**
     * @var ContainerInterface|null
     */
    protected static $container;

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    /**
     * Singleton instances returned by makeInstance, using the class names as
     * array keys
     *
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     * @var array<string, SingletonInterface>
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     */
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    protected static $singletonInstances = [];
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    /**
     * Instances returned by makeInstance, using the class names as array keys
     *
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     * @var array<string, array<object>>
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     */
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    protected static $nonSingletonInstances = [];
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    /**
     * Cache for makeInstance with given class name and final class names to reduce number of self::getClassName() calls
     *
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     * @var array<string, class-string> Given class name => final class name
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     */
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    protected static $finalClassNameCache = [];
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    /**
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     * @var array<string, mixed>
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     */
    protected static $indpEnvCache = [];

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    final private function __construct()
    {
    }

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    /*************************
     *
     * GET/POST Variables
     *
     * Background:
     * Input GET/POST variables in PHP may have their quotes escaped with "\" or not depending on configuration.
     * TYPO3 has always converted quotes to BE escaped if the configuration told that they would not be so.
     * But the clean solution is that quotes are never escaped and that is what the functions below offers.
     * Eventually TYPO3 should provide this in the global space as well.
     * In the transitional phase (or forever..?) we need to encourage EVERY to read and write GET/POST vars through the API functions below.
     * This functionality was previously needed to normalize between magic quotes logic, which was removed from PHP 5.4,
     * so these methods are still in use, but not tackle the slash problem anymore.
     *
     *************************/
    /**
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     * Returns the 'GLOBAL' value of incoming data from POST or GET, with priority to POST, which is equivalent to 'GP' order
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     * In case you already know by which method your data is arriving consider using GeneralUtility::_GET or GeneralUtility::_POST.
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     *
     * @param string $var GET/POST var to return
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     * @return mixed POST var named $var, if not set, the GET var of the same name and if also not set, NULL.
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     */
    public static function _GP($var)
    {
        if (empty($var)) {
            return;
        }
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        $value = $_POST[$var] ?? $_GET[$var] ?? null;

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        // This is there for backwards-compatibility, in order to avoid NULL
        if (isset($value) && !is_array($value)) {
            $value = (string)$value;
        }
        return $value;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the global arrays $_GET and $_POST merged with $_POST taking precedence.
     *
     * @param string $parameter Key (variable name) from GET or POST vars
     * @return array Returns the GET vars merged recursively onto the POST vars.
     */
    public static function _GPmerged($parameter)
    {
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        $postParameter = isset($_POST[$parameter]) && is_array($_POST[$parameter]) ? $_POST[$parameter] : [];
        $getParameter = isset($_GET[$parameter]) && is_array($_GET[$parameter]) ? $_GET[$parameter] : [];
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        $mergedParameters = $getParameter;
        ArrayUtility::mergeRecursiveWithOverrule($mergedParameters, $postParameter);
        return $mergedParameters;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the global $_GET array (or value from) normalized to contain un-escaped values.
     * This function was previously used to normalize between magic quotes logic, which was removed from PHP 5.5
     *
     * @param string $var Optional pointer to value in GET array (basically name of GET var)
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     * @return mixed If $var is set it returns the value of $_GET[$var]. If $var is NULL (default), returns $_GET itself.
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     * @see _POST()
     * @see _GP()
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     */
    public static function _GET($var = null)
    {
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        $value = $var === null
            ? $_GET
            : (empty($var) ? null : ($_GET[$var] ?? null));
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        // This is there for backwards-compatibility, in order to avoid NULL
        if (isset($value) && !is_array($value)) {
            $value = (string)$value;
        }
        return $value;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the global $_POST array (or value from) normalized to contain un-escaped values.
     *
     * @param string $var Optional pointer to value in POST array (basically name of POST var)
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     * @return mixed If $var is set it returns the value of $_POST[$var]. If $var is NULL (default), returns $_POST itself.
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     * @see _GET()
     * @see _GP()
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     */
    public static function _POST($var = null)
    {
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        $value = $var === null ? $_POST : (empty($var) || !isset($_POST[$var]) ? null : $_POST[$var]);
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        // This is there for backwards-compatibility, in order to avoid NULL
        if (isset($value) && !is_array($value)) {
            $value = (string)$value;
        }
        return $value;
    }

    /*************************
     *
     * STRING FUNCTIONS
     *
     *************************/
    /**
     * Truncates a string with appended/prepended "..." and takes current character set into consideration.
     *
     * @param string $string String to truncate
     * @param int $chars Must be an integer with an absolute value of at least 4. if negative the string is cropped from the right end.
     * @param string $appendString Appendix to the truncated string
     * @return string Cropped string
     */
    public static function fixed_lgd_cs($string, $chars, $appendString = '...')
    {
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        if ((int)$chars === 0 || mb_strlen($string, 'utf-8') <= abs($chars)) {
            return $string;
        }
        if ($chars > 0) {
            $string = mb_substr($string, 0, $chars, 'utf-8') . $appendString;
        } else {
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            $string = $appendString . mb_substr($string, $chars, mb_strlen($string, 'utf-8'), 'utf-8');
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        }
        return $string;
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    }

    /**
     * Match IP number with list of numbers with wildcard
     * Dispatcher method for switching into specialised IPv4 and IPv6 methods.
     *
     * @param string $baseIP Is the current remote IP address for instance, typ. REMOTE_ADDR
     * @param string $list Is a comma-list of IP-addresses to match with. *-wildcard allowed instead of number, plus leaving out parts in the IP number is accepted as wildcard (eg. 192.168.*.* equals 192.168). If list is "*" no check is done and the function returns TRUE immediately. An empty list always returns FALSE.
     * @return bool TRUE if an IP-mask from $list matches $baseIP
     */
    public static function cmpIP($baseIP, $list)
    {
        $list = trim($list);
        if ($list === '') {
            return false;
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        }
        if ($list === '*') {
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            return true;
        }
        if (strpos($baseIP, ':') !== false && self::validIPv6($baseIP)) {
            return self::cmpIPv6($baseIP, $list);
        }
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        return self::cmpIPv4($baseIP, $list);
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    }

    /**
     * Match IPv4 number with list of numbers with wildcard
     *
     * @param string $baseIP Is the current remote IP address for instance, typ. REMOTE_ADDR
     * @param string $list Is a comma-list of IP-addresses to match with. *-wildcard allowed instead of number, plus leaving out parts in the IP number is accepted as wildcard (eg. 192.168.*.* equals 192.168), could also contain IPv6 addresses
     * @return bool TRUE if an IP-mask from $list matches $baseIP
     */
    public static function cmpIPv4($baseIP, $list)
    {
        $IPpartsReq = explode('.', $baseIP);
        if (count($IPpartsReq) === 4) {
            $values = self::trimExplode(',', $list, true);
            foreach ($values as $test) {
                $testList = explode('/', $test);
                if (count($testList) === 2) {
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                    [$test, $mask] = $testList;
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                } else {
                    $mask = false;
                }
                if ((int)$mask) {
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                    $mask = (int)$mask;
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                    // "192.168.3.0/24"
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                    $lnet = (int)ip2long($test);
                    $lip = (int)ip2long($baseIP);
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                    $binnet = str_pad(decbin($lnet), 32, '0', STR_PAD_LEFT);
                    $firstpart = substr($binnet, 0, $mask);
                    $binip = str_pad(decbin($lip), 32, '0', STR_PAD_LEFT);
                    $firstip = substr($binip, 0, $mask);
                    $yes = $firstpart === $firstip;
                } else {
                    // "192.168.*.*"
                    $IPparts = explode('.', $test);
                    $yes = 1;
                    foreach ($IPparts as $index => $val) {
                        $val = trim($val);
                        if ($val !== '*' && $IPpartsReq[$index] !== $val) {
                            $yes = 0;
                        }
                    }
                }
                if ($yes) {
                    return true;
                }
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Match IPv6 address with a list of IPv6 prefixes
     *
     * @param string $baseIP Is the current remote IP address for instance
     * @param string $list Is a comma-list of IPv6 prefixes, could also contain IPv4 addresses
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     * @return bool TRUE If a baseIP matches any prefix
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     */
    public static function cmpIPv6($baseIP, $list)
    {
        // Policy default: Deny connection
        $success = false;
        $baseIP = self::normalizeIPv6($baseIP);
        $values = self::trimExplode(',', $list, true);
        foreach ($values as $test) {
            $testList = explode('/', $test);
            if (count($testList) === 2) {
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                [$test, $mask] = $testList;
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            } else {
                $mask = false;
            }
            if (self::validIPv6($test)) {
                $test = self::normalizeIPv6($test);
                $maskInt = (int)$mask ?: 128;
                // Special case; /0 is an allowed mask - equals a wildcard
                if ($mask === '0') {
                    $success = true;
                } elseif ($maskInt == 128) {
                    $success = $test === $baseIP;
                } else {
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                    $testBin = (string)inet_pton($test);
                    $baseIPBin = (string)inet_pton($baseIP);

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                    $success = true;
                    // Modulo is 0 if this is a 8-bit-boundary
                    $maskIntModulo = $maskInt % 8;
                    $numFullCharactersUntilBoundary = (int)($maskInt / 8);
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                    $substring = (string)substr($baseIPBin, 0, $numFullCharactersUntilBoundary);
                    if (strpos($testBin, $substring) !== 0) {
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                        $success = false;
                    } elseif ($maskIntModulo > 0) {
                        // If not an 8-bit-boundary, check bits of last character
                        $testLastBits = str_pad(decbin(ord(substr($testBin, $numFullCharactersUntilBoundary, 1))), 8, '0', STR_PAD_LEFT);
                        $baseIPLastBits = str_pad(decbin(ord(substr($baseIPBin, $numFullCharactersUntilBoundary, 1))), 8, '0', STR_PAD_LEFT);
                        if (strncmp($testLastBits, $baseIPLastBits, $maskIntModulo) != 0) {
                            $success = false;
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
            if ($success) {
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Normalize an IPv6 address to full length
     *
     * @param string $address Given IPv6 address
     * @return string Normalized address
     */
    public static function normalizeIPv6($address)
    {
        $normalizedAddress = '';
        // According to RFC lowercase-representation is recommended
        $address = strtolower($address);
        // Normalized representation has 39 characters (0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000)
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        if (strlen($address) === 39) {
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            // Already in full expanded form
            return $address;
        }
        // Count 2 if if address has hidden zero blocks
        $chunks = explode('::', $address);
        if (count($chunks) === 2) {
            $chunksLeft = explode(':', $chunks[0]);
            $chunksRight = explode(':', $chunks[1]);
            $left = count($chunksLeft);
            $right = count($chunksRight);
            // Special case: leading zero-only blocks count to 1, should be 0
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            if ($left === 1 && strlen($chunksLeft[0]) === 0) {
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                $left = 0;
            }
            $hiddenBlocks = 8 - ($left + $right);
            $hiddenPart = '';
            $h = 0;
            while ($h < $hiddenBlocks) {
                $hiddenPart .= '0000:';
                $h++;
            }
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            if ($left === 0) {
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                $stageOneAddress = $hiddenPart . $chunks[1];
            } else {
                $stageOneAddress = $chunks[0] . ':' . $hiddenPart . $chunks[1];
            }
        } else {
            $stageOneAddress = $address;
        }
        // Normalize the blocks:
        $blocks = explode(':', $stageOneAddress);
        $divCounter = 0;
        foreach ($blocks as $block) {
            $tmpBlock = '';
            $i = 0;
            $hiddenZeros = 4 - strlen($block);
            while ($i < $hiddenZeros) {
                $tmpBlock .= '0';
                $i++;
            }
            $normalizedAddress .= $tmpBlock . $block;
            if ($divCounter < 7) {
                $normalizedAddress .= ':';
                $divCounter++;
            }
        }
        return $normalizedAddress;
    }

    /**
     * Validate a given IP address.
     *
     * Possible format are IPv4 and IPv6.
     *
     * @param string $ip IP address to be tested
     * @return bool TRUE if $ip is either of IPv4 or IPv6 format.
     */
    public static function validIP($ip)
    {
        return filter_var($ip, FILTER_VALIDATE_IP) !== false;
    }

    /**
     * Validate a given IP address to the IPv4 address format.
     *
     * Example for possible format: 10.0.45.99
     *
     * @param string $ip IP address to be tested
     * @return bool TRUE if $ip is of IPv4 format.
     */
    public static function validIPv4($ip)
    {
        return filter_var($ip, FILTER_VALIDATE_IP, FILTER_FLAG_IPV4) !== false;
    }

    /**
     * Validate a given IP address to the IPv6 address format.
     *
     * Example for possible format: 43FB::BB3F:A0A0:0 | ::1
     *
     * @param string $ip IP address to be tested
     * @return bool TRUE if $ip is of IPv6 format.
     */
    public static function validIPv6($ip)
    {
        return filter_var($ip, FILTER_VALIDATE_IP, FILTER_FLAG_IPV6) !== false;
    }

    /**
     * Match fully qualified domain name with list of strings with wildcard
     *
     * @param string $baseHost A hostname or an IPv4/IPv6-address (will by reverse-resolved; typically REMOTE_ADDR)
     * @param string $list A comma-list of domain names to match with. *-wildcard allowed but cannot be part of a string, so it must match the full host name (eg. myhost.*.com => correct, myhost.*domain.com => wrong)
     * @return bool TRUE if a domain name mask from $list matches $baseIP
     */
    public static function cmpFQDN($baseHost, $list)
    {
        $baseHost = trim($baseHost);
        if (empty($baseHost)) {
            return false;
        }
        if (self::validIPv4($baseHost) || self::validIPv6($baseHost)) {
            // Resolve hostname
            // Note: this is reverse-lookup and can be randomly set as soon as somebody is able to set
            // the reverse-DNS for his IP (security when for example used with REMOTE_ADDR)
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            $baseHostName = (string)gethostbyaddr($baseHost);
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            if ($baseHostName === $baseHost) {
                // Unable to resolve hostname
                return false;
            }
        } else {
            $baseHostName = $baseHost;
        }
        $baseHostNameParts = explode('.', $baseHostName);
        $values = self::trimExplode(',', $list, true);
        foreach ($values as $test) {
            $hostNameParts = explode('.', $test);
            // To match hostNameParts can only be shorter (in case of wildcards) or equal
            $hostNamePartsCount = count($hostNameParts);
            $baseHostNamePartsCount = count($baseHostNameParts);
            if ($hostNamePartsCount > $baseHostNamePartsCount) {
                continue;
            }
            $yes = true;
            foreach ($hostNameParts as $index => $val) {
                $val = trim($val);
                if ($val === '*') {
                    // Wildcard valid for one or more hostname-parts
                    $wildcardStart = $index + 1;
                    // Wildcard as last/only part always matches, otherwise perform recursive checks
                    if ($wildcardStart < $hostNamePartsCount) {
                        $wildcardMatched = false;
                        $tempHostName = implode('.', array_slice($hostNameParts, $index + 1));
                        while ($wildcardStart < $baseHostNamePartsCount && !$wildcardMatched) {
                            $tempBaseHostName = implode('.', array_slice($baseHostNameParts, $wildcardStart));
                            $wildcardMatched = self::cmpFQDN($tempBaseHostName, $tempHostName);
                            $wildcardStart++;
                        }
                        if ($wildcardMatched) {
                            // Match found by recursive compare
                            return true;
                        }
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                        $yes = false;
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                    }
                } elseif ($baseHostNameParts[$index] !== $val) {
                    // In case of no match
                    $yes = false;
                }
            }
            if ($yes) {
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Checks if a given URL matches the host that currently handles this HTTP request.
     * Scheme, hostname and (optional) port of the given URL are compared.
     *
     * @param string $url URL to compare with the TYPO3 request host
     * @return bool Whether the URL matches the TYPO3 request host
     */
    public static function isOnCurrentHost($url)
    {
        return stripos($url . '/', self::getIndpEnv('TYPO3_REQUEST_HOST') . '/') === 0;
    }

    /**
     * Check for item in list
     * Check if an item exists in a comma-separated list of items.
     *
     * @param string $list Comma-separated list of items (string)
     * @param string $item Item to check for
     * @return bool TRUE if $item is in $list
     */
    public static function inList($list, $item)
    {
        return strpos(',' . $list . ',', ',' . $item . ',') !== false;
    }

    /**
     * Removes an item from a comma-separated list of items.
     *
     * If $element contains a comma, the behaviour of this method is undefined.
     * Empty elements in the list are preserved.
     *
     * @param string $element Element to remove
     * @param string $list Comma-separated list of items (string)
     * @return string New comma-separated list of items
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     * @deprecated since v11, will be removed in v12.
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     */
    public static function rmFromList($element, $list)
    {
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        trigger_error(
            'GeneralUtility::rmFromList() is deprecated and will be removed in v12.',
            E_USER_DEPRECATED
        );

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        $items = explode(',', $list);
        foreach ($items as $k => $v) {
            if ($v == $element) {
                unset($items[$k]);
            }
        }
        return implode(',', $items);
    }

    /**
     * Expand a comma-separated list of integers with ranges (eg 1,3-5,7 becomes 1,3,4,5,7).
     * Ranges are limited to 1000 values per range.
     *
     * @param string $list Comma-separated list of integers with ranges (string)
     * @return string New comma-separated list of items
     */
    public static function expandList($list)
    {
        $items = explode(',', $list);
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        $list = [];
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        foreach ($items as $item) {
            $range = explode('-', $item);
            if (isset($range[1])) {
                $runAwayBrake = 1000;
                for ($n = $range[0]; $n <= $range[1]; $n++) {
                    $list[] = $n;
                    $runAwayBrake--;
                    if ($runAwayBrake <= 0) {
                        break;
                    }
                }
            } else {
                $list[] = $item;
            }
        }
        return implode(',', $list);
    }

    /**
     * Makes a positive integer hash out of the first 7 chars from the md5 hash of the input
     *
     * @param string $str String to md5-hash
     * @return int Returns 28bit integer-hash
     */
    public static function md5int($str)
    {
        return hexdec(substr(md5($str), 0, 7));
    }

    /**
     * Returns the first 10 positions of the MD5-hash		(changed from 6 to 10 recently)
     *
     * @param string $input Input string to be md5-hashed
     * @param int $len The string-length of the output
     * @return string Substring of the resulting md5-hash, being $len chars long (from beginning)
     */
    public static function shortMD5($input, $len = 10)
    {
        return substr(md5($input), 0, $len);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a proper HMAC on a given input string and secret TYPO3 encryption key.
     *
     * @param string $input Input string to create HMAC from
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     * @param string $additionalSecret additionalSecret to prevent hmac being used in a different context
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     * @return string resulting (hexadecimal) HMAC currently with a length of 40 (HMAC-SHA-1)
     */
    public static function hmac($input, $additionalSecret = '')
    {
        $hashAlgorithm = 'sha1';
        $hashBlocksize = 64;
        $secret = $GLOBALS['TYPO3_CONF_VARS']['SYS']['encryptionKey'] . $additionalSecret;
        if (extension_loaded('hash') && function_exists('hash_hmac') && function_exists('hash_algos') && in_array($hashAlgorithm, hash_algos())) {
            $hmac = hash_hmac($hashAlgorithm, $input, $secret);
        } else {
            // Outer padding
            $opad = str_repeat(chr(92), $hashBlocksize);
            // Inner padding
            $ipad = str_repeat(chr(54), $hashBlocksize);
            if (strlen($secret) > $hashBlocksize) {
                // Keys longer than block size are shorten
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                $key = str_pad(pack('H*', $hashAlgorithm($secret)), $hashBlocksize, "\0");
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            } else {
                // Keys shorter than block size are zero-padded
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                $key = str_pad($secret, $hashBlocksize, "\0");
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            }
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            $hmac = $hashAlgorithm(($key ^ $opad) . pack('H*', $hashAlgorithm(($key ^ $ipad) . $input)));
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        }
        return $hmac;
    }

    /**
     * Takes comma-separated lists and arrays and removes all duplicates
     * If a value in the list is trim(empty), the value is ignored.
     *
     * @param string $in_list Accept multiple parameters which can be comma-separated lists of values and arrays.
     * @param mixed $secondParameter Dummy field, which if set will show a warning!
     * @return string Returns the list without any duplicates of values, space around values are trimmed
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     */
    public static function uniqueList($in_list, $secondParameter = null)
    {
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        trigger_error(
            'GeneralUtility::uniqueList() is deprecated and will be removed in v12. Use StringUtility::uniqueList() instead.',
            E_USER_DEPRECATED
        );
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        if (is_array($in_list)) {
            throw new \InvalidArgumentException('TYPO3 Fatal Error: TYPO3\\CMS\\Core\\Utility\\GeneralUtility::uniqueList() does NOT support array arguments anymore! Only string comma lists!', 1270853885);
        }
        if (isset($secondParameter)) {
            throw new \InvalidArgumentException('TYPO3 Fatal Error: TYPO3\\CMS\\Core\\Utility\\GeneralUtility::uniqueList() does NOT support more than a single argument value anymore. You have specified more than one!', 1270853886);
        }
        return implode(',', array_unique(self::trimExplode(',', $in_list, true)));
    }

    /**
     * Splits a reference to a file in 5 parts
     *
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     * @param string $fileNameWithPath File name with path to be analyzed (must exist if open_basedir is set)
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     * @return array<string, string> Contains keys [path], [file], [filebody], [fileext], [realFileext]
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     */
    public static function split_fileref($fileNameWithPath)
    {
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        $info = [];
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        $reg = [];
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        if (preg_match('/(.*\\/)(.*)$/', $fileNameWithPath, $reg)) {
            $info['path'] = $reg[1];
            $info['file'] = $reg[2];
        } else {
            $info['path'] = '';
            $info['file'] = $fileNameWithPath;
        }
        $reg = '';
        // If open_basedir is set and the fileName was supplied without a path the is_dir check fails
        if (!is_dir($fileNameWithPath) && preg_match('/(.*)\\.([^\\.]*$)/', $info['file'], $reg)) {
            $info['filebody'] = $reg[1];
            $info['fileext'] = strtolower($reg[2]);
            $info['realFileext'] = $reg[2];
        } else {
            $info['filebody'] = $info['file'];
            $info['fileext'] = '';
        }
        reset($info);
        return $info;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the directory part of a path without trailing slash
     * If there is no dir-part, then an empty string is returned.
     * Behaviour:
     *
     * '/dir1/dir2/script.php' => '/dir1/dir2'
     * '/dir1/' => '/dir1'
     * 'dir1/script.php' => 'dir1'
     * 'd/script.php' => 'd'
     * '/script.php' => ''
     * '' => ''
     *
     * @param string $path Directory name / path
     * @return string Processed input value. See function description.
     */
    public static function dirname($path)
    {
        $p = self::revExplode('/', $path, 2);
        return count($p) === 2 ? $p[0] : '';
    }

    /**
     * Returns TRUE if the first part of $str matches the string $partStr
     *
     * @param string $str Full string to check
     * @param string $partStr Reference string which must be found as the "first part" of the full string
     * @return bool TRUE if $partStr was found to be equal to the first part of $str
     */
    public static function isFirstPartOfStr($str, $partStr)
    {
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        $str = is_array($str) ? '' : (string)$str;
        $partStr = is_array($partStr) ? '' : (string)$partStr;
        return $partStr !== '' && strpos($str, $partStr, 0) === 0;
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    }

    /**
     * Formats the input integer $sizeInBytes as bytes/kilobytes/megabytes (-/K/M)
     *
     * @param int $sizeInBytes Number of bytes to format.
     * @param string $labels Binary unit name "iec", decimal unit name "si" or labels for bytes, kilo, mega, giga, and so on separated by vertical bar (|) and possibly encapsulated in "". Eg: " | K| M| G". Defaults to "iec".
     * @param int $base The unit base if not using a unit name. Defaults to 1024.
     * @return string Formatted representation of the byte number, for output.
     */
    public static function formatSize($sizeInBytes, $labels = '', $base = 0)
    {
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        $defaultFormats = [
            'iec' => ['base' => 1024, 'labels' => [' ', ' Ki', ' Mi', ' Gi', ' Ti', ' Pi', ' Ei', ' Zi', ' Yi']],
            'si' => ['base' => 1000, 'labels' => [' ', ' k', ' M', ' G', ' T', ' P', ' E', ' Z', ' Y']],
        ];
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        // Set labels and base:
        if (empty($labels)) {
            $labels = 'iec';
        }
        if (isset($defaultFormats[$labels])) {
            $base = $defaultFormats[$labels]['base'];
            $labelArr = $defaultFormats[$labels]['labels'];
        } else {
            $base = (int)$base;
            if ($base !== 1000 && $base !== 1024) {
                $base = 1024;
            }
            $labelArr = explode('|', str_replace('"', '', $labels));
        }
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        // This is set via Site Handling and in the Locales class via setlocale()
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        $localeInfo = localeconv();
        $sizeInBytes = max($sizeInBytes, 0);
        $multiplier = floor(($sizeInBytes ? log($sizeInBytes) : 0) / log($base));
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        if ($sizeInUnits > ($base * .9)) {
            $multiplier++;
        }
        $multiplier = min($multiplier, count($labelArr) - 1);
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        $sizeInUnits = $sizeInBytes / $base ** $multiplier;
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        return number_format($sizeInUnits, (($multiplier > 0) && ($sizeInUnits < 20)) ? 2 : 0, $localeInfo['decimal_point'], '') . $labelArr[$multiplier];
    }

    /**
     * This splits a string by the chars in $operators (typical /+-*) and returns an array with them in
     *
     * @param string $string Input string, eg "123 + 456 / 789 - 4
     * @param string $operators Operators to split by, typically "/+-*
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     * @see \TYPO3\CMS\Frontend\ContentObject\ContentObjectRenderer::calc()
     * @see \TYPO3\CMS\Frontend\Imaging\GifBuilder::calcOffset()
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     */
    public static function splitCalc($string, $operators)
    {
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        $res = [];
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        $sign = '+';
        while ($string) {
            $valueLen = strcspn($string, $operators);
            $value = substr($string, 0, $valueLen);
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            $res[] = [$sign, trim($value)];
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            $sign = substr($string, $valueLen, 1);
            $string = substr($string, $valueLen + 1);
        }
        reset($res);
        return $res;
    }

    /**
     * Checking syntax of input email address
     *
     * @param string $email Input string to evaluate
     * @return bool Returns TRUE if the $email address (input string) is valid
     */
    public static function validEmail($email)
    {
        // Early return in case input is not a string
        if (!is_string($email)) {
            return false;
        }
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        if (trim($email) !== $email) {
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            return false;
        }
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        $validators = [];
        foreach ($GLOBALS['TYPO3_CONF_VARS']['MAIL']['validators'] ?? [RFCValidation::class] as $className) {
            $validator = new $className();
            if ($validator instanceof EmailValidation) {
                $validators[] = $validator;
            }
        }
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        return (new EmailValidator())->isValid($email, new MultipleValidationWithAnd($validators, MultipleValidationWithAnd::STOP_ON_ERROR));
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    }

    /**
     * Returns a given string with underscores as UpperCamelCase.
     * Example: Converts blog_example to BlogExample
     *
     * @param string $string String to be converted to camel case
     * @return string UpperCamelCasedWord
     */
    public static function underscoredToUpperCamelCase($string)
    {
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        return str_replace(' ', '', ucwords(str_replace('_', ' ', strtolower($string))));
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    }

    /**
     * Returns a given string with underscores as lowerCamelCase.
     * Example: Converts minimal_value to minimalValue
     *
     * @param string $string String to be converted to camel case
     * @return string lowerCamelCasedWord
     */
    public static function underscoredToLowerCamelCase($string)
    {
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        return lcfirst(str_replace(' ', '', ucwords(str_replace('_', ' ', strtolower($string)))));
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    }

    /**
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     * Returns a given CamelCasedString as a lowercase string with underscores.
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     * Example: Converts BlogExample to blog_example, and minimalValue to minimal_value
     *
     * @param string $string String to be converted to lowercase underscore
     * @return string lowercase_and_underscored_string
     */
    public static function camelCaseToLowerCaseUnderscored($string)
    {
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        return mb_strtolower($value, 'utf-8');
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    }

    /**
     * Checks if a given string is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL).
     *
     * On seriously malformed URLs, parse_url may return FALSE and emit an
     * E_WARNING.
     *
     * filter_var() requires a scheme to be present.
     *
     * http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2396.html
     * Scheme names consist of a sequence of characters beginning with a
     * lower case letter and followed by any combination of lower case letters,
     * digits, plus ("+"), period ("."), or hyphen ("-").  For resiliency,
     * programs interpreting URI should treat upper case letters as equivalent to
     * lower case in scheme names (e.g., allow "HTTP" as well as "http").
     * scheme = alpha *( alpha | digit | "+" | "-" | "." )
     *
     * Convert the domain part to punicode if it does not look like a regular
     * domain name. Only the domain part because RFC3986 specifies the the rest of
     * the url may not contain special characters:
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     * https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#appendix-A
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     *
     * @param string $url The URL to be validated
     * @return bool Whether the given URL is valid
     */
    public static function isValidUrl($url)
    {
        $parsedUrl = parse_url($url);
        if (!$parsedUrl || !isset($parsedUrl['scheme'])) {
            return false;
        }
        // HttpUtility::buildUrl() will always build urls with <scheme>://
        // our original $url might only contain <scheme>: (e.g. mail:)
        // so we convert that to the double-slashed version to ensure
        // our check against the $recomposedUrl is proper
        if (!self::isFirstPartOfStr($url, $parsedUrl['scheme'] . '://')) {
            $url = str_replace($parsedUrl['scheme'] . ':', $parsedUrl['scheme'] . '://', $url);
        }
        $recomposedUrl = HttpUtility::buildUrl($parsedUrl);
        if ($recomposedUrl !== $url) {
            // The parse_url() had to modify characters, so the URL is invalid
            return false;
        }
        if (isset($parsedUrl['host']) && !preg_match('/^[a-z0-9.\\-]*$/i', $parsedUrl['host'])) {
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            $host = (string)idn_to_ascii($parsedUrl['host']);
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            if ($host === false) {
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                return false;
            }
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            $parsedUrl['host'] = $host;
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        }
        return filter_var(HttpUtility::buildUrl($parsedUrl), FILTER_VALIDATE_URL) !== false;
    }

    /*************************
     *
     * ARRAY FUNCTIONS
     *
     *************************/

    /**
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     * Explodes a $string delimited by $delimiter and casts each item in the array to (int).
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     * Corresponds to \TYPO3\CMS\Core\Utility\GeneralUtility::trimExplode(), but with conversion to integers for all values.
     *
     * @param string $delimiter Delimiter string to explode with
     * @param string $string The string to explode
     * @param bool $removeEmptyValues If set, all empty values (='') will NOT be set in output
     * @param int $limit If positive, the result will contain a maximum of limit elements,
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     * @return int[] Exploded values, all converted to integers
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     */
    public static function intExplode($delimiter, $string, $removeEmptyValues = false, $limit = 0)
    {
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        $result = explode($delimiter, $string) ?: [];
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        foreach ($result as $key => &$value) {
            if ($removeEmptyValues && ($value === '' || trim($value) === '')) {
                unset($result[$key]);
            } else {
                $value = (int)$value;
            }
        }
        unset($value);
        if ($limit !== 0) {
            if ($limit < 0) {
                $result = array_slice($result, 0, $limit);
            } elseif (count($result) > $limit) {
                $lastElements = array_slice($result, $limit - 1);
                $result = array_slice($result, 0, $limit - 1);
                $result[] = implode($delimiter, $lastElements);
            }
        }
        return $result;
    }

    /**
     * Reverse explode which explodes the string counting from behind.
     *
     * Note: The delimiter has to given in the reverse order as
     *       it is occurring within the string.
     *
     * GeneralUtility::revExplode('[]', '[my][words][here]', 2)
     *   ==> array('[my][words', 'here]')
     *
     * @param string $delimiter Delimiter string to explode with
     * @param string $string The string to explode
     * @param int $count Number of array entries
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     * @return string[] Exploded values
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     */
    public static function revExplode($delimiter, $string, $count = 0)
    {
        // 2 is the (currently, as of 2014-02) most-used value for $count in the core, therefore we check it first
        if ($count === 2) {
            $position = strrpos($string, strrev($delimiter));
            if ($position !== false) {
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                return [substr($string, 0, $position), substr($string, $position + strlen($delimiter))];
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            }
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            return [$string];
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        }
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        if ($count <= 1) {
            return [$string];
        }
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        $explodedValues = explode($delimiter, strrev($string), $count) ?: [];
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        $explodedValues = array_map('strrev', $explodedValues);
        return array_reverse($explodedValues);
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    }

    /**
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     * Explodes a string and removes whitespace-only values.
     *
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     * If $removeEmptyValues is set, then all values that contain only whitespace are removed.
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     *
     * Each item will have leading and trailing whitespace removed. However, if the tail items are
     * returned as a single array item, their internal whitespace will not be modified.
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     *
     * @param string $delim Delimiter string to explode with
     * @param string $string The string to explode
     * @param bool $removeEmptyValues If set, all empty values will be removed in output
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     * @param int $limit If limit is set and positive, the returned array will contain a maximum of limit elements with
     *                   the last element containing the rest of string. If the limit parameter is negative, all components
     *                   except the last -limit are returned.
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     * @return string[] Exploded values
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     */
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    public static function trimExplode($delim, $string, $removeEmptyValues = false, $limit = 0): array
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    {
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        $result = explode($delim, $string) ?: [];