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16
17 <h2>ADOdb Library for PHP</h2>
18 <p>V4.90 8 June 2006 (c) 2000-2006 John Lim (jlim#natsoft.com)</p>
19 <p><font size="1">This software is dual licensed using BSD-Style and LGPL. This
20 means you can use it in compiled proprietary and commercial products.</font></p>
21
22
23 <p>Useful ADOdb links: <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#download">Download</a> &nbsp; <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#docs">Other Docs</a>
24
25 </p><p><a href="#intro"><b>Introduction</b></a><b><br>
26 <a href="#features">Unique Features</a><br>
27 <a href="#users">How People are using ADOdb</a><br>
28 <a href="#bugs">Feature Requests and Bug Reports</a><br>
29 </b><b><a href="#install">Installation</a><br>
30 <a href="#mininstall">Minimum Install</a><br>
31 <a href="#coding">Initializing Code and Connectioning to Databases</a><br>
32 </b><font size="2"> &nbsp; <a href="#dsnsupport">Data Source Name (DSN) Support</a></font> &nbsp; <a href="#connect_ex">Connection Examples</a> <br>
33 <b><a href="#speed">High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips</a></b><br>
34 <b><a href="#hack">Hacking and Modifying ADOdb Safely</a><br>
35 <a href="#php5">PHP5 Features</a></b><br>
36 <font size="2"><a href="#php5iterators">foreach iterators</a> <a href="#php5exceptions">exceptions</a></font><br>
37 <b> <a href="#drivers">Supported Databases</a></b><br>
38 <b> <a href="#quickstart">Tutorials</a></b><br>
39 <a href="#ex1">Example 1: Select</a><br>
40 <a href="#ex2">Example 2: Advanced Select</a><br>
41 <a href="#ex3">Example 3: Insert</a><br>
42 <a href="#ex4">Example 4: Debugging</a> &nbsp;<a href="#exrs2html">rs2html
43 example</a><br>
44 <a href="#ex5">Example 5: MySQL and Menus</a><br>
45 <a href="#ex6">Example 6: Connecting to Multiple Databases at once</a> <br>
46 <a href="#ex7">Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL</a> <br>
47 <a href="#ex8">Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous</a><br>
48 <a href="#ex9">Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</a> <br>
49 <a href="#ex10">Example 10: Custom filters</a><br>
50 <a href="#ex11">Example 11: Smart Transactions</a><br>
51 <br>
52 <b> <a href="#errorhandling">Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</a><br>
53 <a href="#DSN">Data Source Names</a><br>
54 <a href="#caching">Caching</a><br>
55 <a href="#pivot">Pivot Tables</a></b>
56 </p><p><a href="#ref"><b>REFERENCE</b></a>
57 </p><p> <font size="2">Variables: <a href="#adodb_countrecs">$ADODB_COUNTRECS</a>
58 <a href="#adodb_ansi_padding_off">$ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF</a>
59 <a href="#adodb_cache_dir">$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</a> <br>
60 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#force_type">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a>
61 <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>
62 <a href="#adodb_lang">$ADODB_LANG</a> <br>
63 Constants: </font><font size="2"><a href="#adodb_assoc_case">ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</a>
64 </font><br>
65 <a href="#ADOConnection"><b> ADOConnection</b></a><br>
66 <font size="2">Connections: <a href="#connect">Connect</a> <a href="#pconnect">PConnect</a>
67 <a href="#nconnect">NConnect</a> <a href="#isconnected">IsConnected</a><br>
68 Executing SQL: <a href="#execute">Execute</a> <a href="#cacheexecute"><i>CacheExecute</i></a>
69 <a href="#selectlimit">SelectLimit</a> <a href="#cacheSelectLimit"><i>CacheSelectLimit</i></a>
70 <a href="#param">Param</a> <a href="#prepare">Prepare</a> <a href="#preparesp">PrepareSP</a>
71 <a href="#inparameter">InParameter</a> <a href="#outparameter">OutParameter</a> <a href="#autoexecute">AutoExecute</a>
72 <br>
73 &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#getone">GetOne</a>
74 <a href="#cachegetone"><i>CacheGetOne</i></a> <a href="#getrow">GetRow</a> <a href="#cachegetrow"><i>CacheGetRow</i></a>
75 <a href="#getall">GetAll</a> <a href="#cachegetall"><i>CacheGetAll</i></a> <a href="#getcol">GetCol</a>
76 <a href="#cachegetcol"><i>CacheGetCol</i></a> <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a> <a href="#cachegetassoc"><i>CacheGetAssoc</i></a> <a href="#replace">Replace</a>
77 <br>
78 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a>
79 (oci8 only)<br>
80 Generates SQL strings: <a href="#getupdatesql">GetUpdateSQL</a> <a href="#getinsertsql">GetInsertSQL</a>
81 <a href="#concat">Concat</a> <a href="#ifnull">IfNull</a> <a href="#length">length</a> <a href="#random">random</a> <a href="#substr">substr</a>
82 <a href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#param">Param</a> <a href="#OffsetDate">OffsetDate</a> <a href="#SQLDate">SQLDate</a>
83 <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a> <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a>
84 <a href="#binddate">BindDate</a> <a href="#bindtimestamp">BindTimeStamp</a>
85 <br>
86 Blobs: <a href="#updateblob">UpdateBlob</a> <a href="#updateclob">UpdateClob</a>
87 <a href="#updateblobfile">UpdateBlobFile</a> <a href="#blobencode">BlobEncode</a>
88 <a href="#blobdecode">BlobDecode</a><br>
89 Paging/Scrolling: <a href="#pageexecute">PageExecute</a> <a href="#cachepageexecute">CachePageExecute</a><br>
90 Cleanup: <a href="#cacheflush">CacheFlush</a> <a href="#Close">Close</a><br>
91 Transactions: <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans</a> <a href="#completetrans">CompleteTrans</a>
92 <a href="#failtrans">FailTrans</a> <a href="#hasfailedtrans">HasFailedTrans</a>
93 <a href="#begintrans">BeginTrans</a> <a href="#committrans">CommitTrans</a>
94 <a href="#rollbacktrans">RollbackTrans</a> <a href=#SetTransactionMode>SetTransactionMode</a><br>
95 Fetching Data: </font> <font size="2"><a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a><br>
96 Strings: <a href="#concat">concat</a> <a href="#length">length</a> <a href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#quote">quote</a> <a href="#substr">substr</a><br>
97 Dates: <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a> <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a> <a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a>
98 <a href="#binddate">BindDate</a> <a href="#bindtimestamp">BindTimeStamp</a>
99 <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp</a> <a href="#OffsetDate">OffsetDate</a>
100 <a href="#SQLDate">SQLDate</a> <br>
101 Row Management: <a href="#affected_rows">Affected_Rows</a> <a href="#inserted_id">Insert_ID</a> <a href="#rowlock">RowLock</a>
102 <a href="#genid">GenID</a> <a href="#createseq">CreateSequence</a> <a href="#dropseq">DropSequence</a>
103 <br>
104 Error Handling: <a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a> <a href="#errorno">ErrorNo</a>
105 <a href="#metaerror">MetaError</a> <a href="#metaerrormsg">MetaErrorMsg</a><br>
106 Data Dictionary (metadata): <a href="#metadatabases">MetaDatabases</a> <a href="#metatables">MetaTables</a>
107 <a href="#metacolumns">MetaColumns</a> <a href="#metacolumnames">MetaColumnNames</a>
108 <a href="#metaprimarykeys">MetaPrimaryKeys</a> <a href="#metaforeignkeys">MetaForeignKeys</a>
109 <a href="#serverinfo">ServerInfo</a> <br>
110 Statistics and Query-Rewriting: <a href="#logsql">LogSQL</a> <a href="#fnexecute">fnExecute
111 and fnCacheExecute</a><br>
112 </font><font size="2">Deprecated: <a href="#bind">Bind</a> <a href="#blankrecordset">BlankRecordSet</a>
113 <a href="#parameter">Parameter</a></font>
114 <a href="#adorecordSet"><b><br>
115 ADORecordSet</b></a><br>
116 <font size="2">
117 Returns one field: <a href="#fields">Fields</a><br>
118 Returns one row:<a href="#fetchrow">FetchRow</a> <a href="#fetchinto">FetchInto</a>
119 <a href="#fetchobject">FetchObject</a> <a href="#fetchnextobject">FetchNextObject</a>
120 <a href="#fetchobj">FetchObj</a> <a href="#fetchnextobj">FetchNextObj</a>
121 <a href="#getrowassoc">GetRowAssoc</a> <br>
122 Returns all rows:<a href="#getarray">GetArray</a> <a href="#getrows">GetRows</a>
123 <a href="#getassoc">GetAssoc</a><br>
124 Scrolling:<a href="#move">Move</a> <a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a> <a href="#movefirst">MoveFirst</a>
125 <a href="#movelast">MoveLast</a> <a href="#abspos">AbsolutePosition</a> <a href="#currentrow">CurrentRow</a>
126 <a href="#atfirstpage">AtFirstPage</a> <a href="#atlastpage">AtLastPage</a>
127 <a href="#absolutepage">AbsolutePage</a> </font> <font size="2"><br>
128 Menu generation:<a href="#getmenu">GetMenu</a> <a href="#getmenu2">GetMenu2</a><br>
129 Dates:<a href="#userdate">UserDate</a> <a href="#usertimestamp">UserTimeStamp</a>
130 <a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a> <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp<br>
131 </a>Recordset Info:<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a> <a href="#po_recordcount">PO_RecordCount</a>
132 <a href="#nextrecordset">NextRecordSet</a><br>
133 Field Info:<a href="#fieldcount">FieldCount</a> <a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a>
134 <a href="#metatype">MetaType</a><br>
135 Cleanup: <a href="#rsclose">Close</a></font>
136 </p>
137 <p><font size="2"><a href="#rs2html"><b>rs2html</b></a>&nbsp; <a href="#exrs2html">example</a></font><br>
138 <a href="#adodiff">Differences between ADOdb and ADO</a><br>
139 <a href="#driverguide"><b>Database Driver Guide<br>
140 </b></a><b><a href="#changes">Change Log</a></b><br>
141 </p>
142 <h2>Introduction<a name="intro"></a></h2>
143 <p>PHP's database access functions are not standardised. This creates a need for
144 a database class library to hide the differences between the different database
145 API's (encapsulate the differences) so we can easily switch databases. PHP 4.0.5 or later
146 is now required (because we use array-based str_replace).</p>
147 <p>We currently support MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, Sybase SQL Anywhere, Informix,
148 PostgreSQL, FrontBase, SQLite, Interbase (Firebird and Borland variants), Foxpro, Access, ADO, DB2, SAP DB and ODBC.
149 We have had successful reports of connecting to Progress and CacheLite via ODBC. We hope more people
150 will contribute drivers to support other databases.</p>
151 <p>PHP4 supports session variables. You can store your session information using
152 ADOdb for true portability and scalability. See adodb-session.php for more information.</p>
153 <p>Also read <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/adodb/tips_portable_sql.htm">tips_portable_sql.htm</a>
154 for tips on writing
155 portable SQL.</p>
156 <h2>Unique Features of ADOdb<a name="features"></a></h2>
157 <ul>
158 <li><b>Easy for Windows programmers</b> to adapt to because many of the conventions
159 are similar to Microsoft's ADO.</li>
160 <li>Unlike other PHP database classes which focus only on select statements,
161 <b>we provide support code to handle inserts and updates which can be adapted
162 to multiple databases quickly.</b> Methods are provided for date handling,
163 string concatenation and string quoting characters for differing databases.</li>
164 <li>A<b> metatype system </b>is built in so that we can figure out that types
165 such as CHAR, TEXT and STRING are equivalent in different databases.</li>
166 <li><b>Easy to port</b> because all the database dependant code are stored in
167 stub functions. You do not need to port the core logic of the classes.</li>
168 <li><b>Portable table and index creation</b> with the <a href="docs-datadict.htm">datadict</a> classes.
169 </li><li><b>Database performance monitoring and SQL tuning</b> with the <a href="docs-perf.htm">performance monitoring</a> classes.
170 </li><li><b>Database-backed sessions</b> with the <a href="docs-session.htm">session management</a> classes. Supports session expiry notification.
171 <li><b>Object-Relational Mapping</b> using <a href="docs-active-record.htm">ADOdb_Active_Record</a> classes.
172 </li></ul>
173 <h2>How People are using ADOdb<a name="users"></a></h2>
174 Here are some examples of how people are using ADOdb (for a much longer list,
175 visit <a href="http://phplens.com/phpeverywhere/adodb-cool-apps">adodb-cool-apps</a>):
176 <ul>
177 <li><a href="http://phplens.com/">PhpLens</a> is a commercial data grid
178 component that allows both cool Web designers and serious unshaved
179 programmers to develop and maintain databases on the Web easily.
180 Developed by the author of ADOdb.<p>
181
182 </p></li><li><a href="http://www.interakt.ro/phakt/">PHAkt: PHP Extension for DreamWeaver Ultradev</a> allows you to script PHP in the popular Web page editor. Database handling provided by ADOdb.<p>
183
184 </p></li><li><a href="http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/%7Erdanyliw/snort/snortacid.html">Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases</a>
185 (ACID): PHP-based analysis engine to search and process a database of
186 security incidents generated by security-related software such as IDSes
187 and firewalls (e.g. Snort, ipchains). By Roman Danyliw.<p>
188
189 </p></li><li><a href="http://www.postnuke.com/">PostNuke</a> is a very
190 popular free content management system and weblog system. It offers
191 full CSS support, HTML 4.01 transitional compliance throughout, an
192 advanced blocks system, and is fully multi-lingual enabled. <p>
193
194 </p></li><li><a href="http://www.auto-net.no/easypublish.php?page=index&amp;lang_id=2">EasyPublish CMS</a>
195 is another free content management system for managing information and
196 integrated modules on your internet, intranet- and extranet-sites. From
197 Norway.<p>
198
199 </p></li><li><a href="http://nola.noguska.com/">NOLA</a> is a full featured accounting, inventory, and job tracking application. It is licensed under the GPL, and developed by Noguska.
200 </li></ul><p>
201
202 </p><h2>Feature Requests and Bug Reports<a name="bugs"></a></h2>
203 <p>Feature requests and bug reports can be emailed to <a href="mailto:jlim#natsoft.com.my">jlim#natsoft.com.my</a>
204 or posted to the ADOdb Help forums at <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4">http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4</a>.</p>
205 <h2>Installation Guide<a name="install"></a></h2>
206 <p>Make sure you are running PHP 4.0.5 or later.
207 Unpack all the files into a directory accessible by your webserver.</p>
208 <p>To test, try modifying some of the tutorial examples. Make sure you customize
209 the connection settings correctly. You can debug using <i>$db-&gt;debug = true</i> as shown below:</p>
210 <pre>&lt;?php<br> include('adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br> $db = <a href="#adonewconnection">ADONewConnection</a>($dbdriver); # eg 'mysql' or 'postgres'<br> $db-&gt;debug = true;<br> $db-&gt;<a href="#connect">Connect</a>($server, $user, $password, $database);<br> $rs = $db-&gt;<a href="#execute">Execute</a>('select * from some_small_table');<br> print "&lt;pre&gt;";<br> print_r($rs-&gt;<a href="#getrows">GetRows</a>());<br> print "&lt;/pre&gt;";<br>?&gt;</pre>
211
212 <h3>Minimum Install<a name="mininstall"></a></h3>
213 <p>For developers who want to release a minimal install of ADOdb, you will need:
214 </p><ul>
215 <li>adodb.inc.php
216 </li><li>adodb-lib.inc.php
217 </li><li>adodb-time.inc.php
218 </li><li>drivers/adodb-$database.inc.php
219 </li><li>license.txt (for legal reasons)
220 </li><li>adodb-php4.inc.php
221 </li><li>adodb-iterator.inc.php (php5 functionality)
222 </li></ul>
223 Optional:
224 <ul>
225 <li>adodb-error.inc.php and lang/adodb-$lang.inc.php (if you use MetaError())
226 </li><li>adodb-csvlib.inc.php (if you use cached recordsets - CacheExecute(), etc)
227 </li><li>adodb-exceptions.inc.php and adodb-errorhandler.inc.php (if you use adodb error handler or php5 exceptions).
228 <li>adodb-active-record.inc.php if you use <a href=docs-active-record.htm>Active Records</a>.
229 </li></ul>
230
231 <h3>Code Initialization Examples<a name="coding"></a></h3>
232 <p>When running ADOdb, at least two files are loaded. First is adodb/adodb.inc.php,
233 which contains all functions used by all database classes. The code specific
234 to a particular database is in the adodb/driver/adodb-????.inc.php file.</p>
235 <a name="adonewconnection"></a>
236 <p>For example, to connect to a mysql database:</p>
237 <pre>include('/path/to/set/here/adodb.inc.php');<br>$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');<br></pre>
238 <p>Whenever you need to connect to a database, you create a Connection object
239 using the <b>ADONewConnection</b>($driver) function.
240 <b>NewADOConnection</b>($driver) is an alternative name for the same function.</p>
241
242 <p>At this point, you are not connected to the database (no longer true if you pass in a <a href="#dsnsupport">dsn</a>). You will first need to decide
243 whether to use <i>persistent</i> or <i>non-persistent</i> connections. The advantage of <i>persistent</i>
244 connections is that they are faster, as the database connection is never closed (even
245 when you call Close()). <i>Non-persistent </i>connections take up much fewer resources though,
246 reducing the risk of your database and your web-server becoming overloaded.
247 </p><p>For persistent connections,
248 use $conn-&gt;<a href="#pconnect">PConnect()</a>,
249 or $conn-&gt;<a href="#connect">Connect()</a> for non-persistent connections.
250 Some database drivers also support <a href="#nconnect">NConnect()</a>, which forces
251 the creation of a new connection.
252
253 <a name="connection_gotcha"></a>
254 </p><p><b>Connection Gotcha</b>: If you create two connections, but both use the same userid and password,
255 PHP will share the same connection. This can cause problems if the connections are meant to
256 different databases. The solution is to always use different userid's for different databases,
257 or use NConnect().
258
259 <a name="dsnsupport"></a>
260 </p><h3>Data Source Name (DSN) Support</h3>
261 <p> Since ADOdb 4.51, you can connect to a database by passing a dsn to NewADOConnection() (or ADONewConnection, which is
262 the same function). The dsn format is:
263 </p><pre> $driver://$username:$password@hostname/$database?options[=value]<br></pre><p>
264 NewADOConnection() calls Connect() or PConnect() internally for you. If the connection fails, false is returned.
265 </p><pre> <font color="#008000"># non-persistent connection</font>
266 $dsn = 'mysql://root:pwd@localhost/mydb';
267 $db = NewADOConnection($dsn);
268 if (!$db) die("Connection failed");
269
270 <font color="#008000"># no need to call connect/pconnect!</font>
271 $arr = $db-&gt;GetArray("select * from table");
272
273 <font color="#008000"># persistent connection</font>
274 $dsn2 = 'mysql://root:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist';
275 </pre>
276 <p>
277 If you have special characters such as /:? in your dsn, then you need to rawurlencode them first:
278 </p><pre> $pwd = rawurlencode($pwd);<br> $dsn = "mysql://root:$pwd@localhost/mydb";<br></pre>
279 <p>
280 Legal options are:
281 </p><p>
282 <table align="center" border="1"><tbody><tr><td>For all drivers</td><td>
283 'persist', 'persistent', 'debug', 'fetchmode', 'new'
284 </td></tr><tr><td>Interbase/Firebird
285 </td><td>
286 'dialect','charset','buffers','role'
287 </td></tr><tr><td>M'soft ADO</td><td>
288 'charpage'
289
290 </td></tr><tr><td>MySQL</td><td>
291 'clientflags'
292 </td></tr><tr><td>MySQLi</td><td>
293 'port', 'socket', 'clientflags'
294 </td></tr><tr><td>Oci8</td><td>
295 'nls_date_format','charset'
296 </td></tr></tbody></table>
297 </p><p>
298 For all drivers, when the options <i>persist</i> or <i>persistent</i> are set, a persistent connection is forced; similarly, when <i>new</i> is set, then
299 a new connection will be created using NConnect if the underlying driver supports it.
300 The <i>debug</i> option enables debugging. The <i>fetchmode</i> calls <a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode()</a>.
301 If no value is defined for an option, then the value is set to 1.
302 </p><p>
303 ADOdb DSN's are compatible with version 1.0 of PEAR DB's DSN format.
304 <a name="connect_ex">
305 </a></p><h3><a name="connect_ex">Examples of Connecting to Databases</a></h3>
306 <h4><a name="connect_ex">MySQL and Most Other Database Drivers</a></h4>
307 <p><a name="connect_ex">MySQL connections are very straightforward, and the parameters are identical
308 to mysql_connect:</a></p>
309 <pre><a name="connect_ex"> $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); <br> $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br> <br> <font color="#008000"># or dsn </font>
310 $dsn = 'mysql://user:pwd@localhost/mydb';
311 $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect()
312
313 <font color="#008000"># or persistent dsn</font>
314 $dsn = 'mysql://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist';
315 $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for PConnect()
316
317 <font color="#008000"># a more complex example:</font>
318 $pwd = urlencode($pwd);
319 $flags = MYSQL_CLIENT_COMPRESS;
320 $dsn = "mysql://user:$pwd@localhost/mydb?persist&amp;clientflags=$flags";
321 $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for PConnect()
322 </a></pre>
323 <p><a name="connect_ex"> For most drivers, you can use the standard function: Connect($server, $user, $password, $database), or
324 a </a><a href="dsnsupport">DSN</a> since ADOdb 4.51. Exceptions to this are listed below.
325 </p>
326 <a name=pdo>
327 <h4>PDO</h4>
328 <p>PDO, which only works with PHP5, accepts a driver specific connection string:
329 <pre>
330 $conn =& NewADConnection('pdo');
331 $conn->Connect('mysql:host=localhost',$user,$pwd,$mydb);
332 $conn->Connect('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=mydb',$user,$pwd);
333 $conn->Connect("mysql:host=localhost;dbname=mydb;username=$user;password=$pwd");
334 </pre>
335 <p>The DSN mechanism is also supported:
336 <pre>
337 $conn =& NewADConnection("pdo_mysql://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist"); # persist is optional
338 </pre>
339 <h4>PostgreSQL</h4>
340 <p>PostgreSQL 7 and 8 accepts connections using: </p>
341 <p>a. the standard connection string:</p>
342 <pre> $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('postgres'); <br> $conn-&gt;PConnect('host=localhost port=5432 dbname=mary');</pre>
343 <p> b. the classical 4 parameters:</p>
344 <pre> $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br> </pre>
345 <p>c. dsn:
346 </p><pre> $dsn = 'postgres://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist'; # persist is optional
347 $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect/PConnect<br></pre>
348 <a name="ldap"></a>
349
350 <h4>LDAP</h4>
351 <p>Here is an example of querying a LDAP server. Thanks to Josh Eldridge for the driver and this example:
352 </p><pre>
353 require('/path/to/adodb.inc.php');
354
355 /* Make sure to set this BEFORE calling Connect() */
356 $LDAP_CONNECT_OPTIONS = Array(
357 Array ("OPTION_NAME"=>LDAP_OPT_DEREF, "OPTION_VALUE"=>2),
358 Array ("OPTION_NAME"=>LDAP_OPT_SIZELIMIT,"OPTION_VALUE"=>100),
359 Array ("OPTION_NAME"=>LDAP_OPT_TIMELIMIT,"OPTION_VALUE"=>30),
360 Array ("OPTION_NAME"=>LDAP_OPT_PROTOCOL_VERSION,"OPTION_VALUE"=>3),
361 Array ("OPTION_NAME"=>LDAP_OPT_ERROR_NUMBER,"OPTION_VALUE"=>13),
362 Array ("OPTION_NAME"=>LDAP_OPT_REFERRALS,"OPTION_VALUE"=>FALSE),
363 Array ("OPTION_NAME"=>LDAP_OPT_RESTART,"OPTION_VALUE"=>FALSE)
364 );
365 $host = 'ldap.baylor.edu';
366 $ldapbase = 'ou=People,o=Baylor University,c=US';
367
368 $ldap = NewADOConnection( 'ldap' );
369 $ldap->Connect( $host, $user_name='', $password='', $ldapbase );
370
371 echo "&lt;pre>";
372
373 print_r( $ldap->ServerInfo() );
374 $ldap->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);
375 $userName = 'eldridge';
376 $filter="(|(CN=$userName*)(sn=$userName*)(givenname=$userName*)(uid=$userName*))";
377
378 $rs = $ldap->Execute( $filter );
379 if ($rs)
380 while ($arr = $rs->FetchRow()) {
381 print_r($arr);
382 }
383
384 $rs = $ldap->Execute( $filter );
385 if ($rs)
386 while (!$rs->EOF) {
387 print_r($rs->fields);
388 $rs->MoveNext();
389 }
390
391 print_r( $ldap->GetArray( $filter ) );
392 print_r( $ldap->GetRow( $filter ) );
393
394 $ldap->Close();
395 echo "&lt;/pre>";
396 </pre>
397 <p>Using DSN:
398 <pre>
399 $dsn = "ldap://ldap.baylor.edu/ou=People,o=Baylor University,c=US";
400 $db = NewADOConnection($dsn);
401 </pre>
402 <h4>Interbase/Firebird</h4>
403 You define the database in the $host parameter:
404 <pre> $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('ibase'); <br> $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost:c:\ibase\employee.gdb','sysdba','masterkey');<br></pre>
405 <p>Or dsn:
406 </p><pre> $dsn = 'firebird://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist&amp;dialect=3'; # persist is optional<br> $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect/PConnect<br></pre>
407 <h4>SQLite</h4>
408 Sqlite will create the database file if it does not exist.
409 <pre> $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('sqlite');
410 $conn-&gt;PConnect('c:\path\to\sqlite.db'); # sqlite will create if does not exist<br></pre>
411 <p>Or dsn:
412 </p><pre> $path = urlencode('c:\path\to\sqlite.db');
413 $dsn = "sqlite://$path/?persist"; # persist is optional
414 $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect/PConnect<br></pre>
415 <h4>Oracle (oci8)</h4>
416 <p>With oci8, you can connect in multiple ways. Note that oci8 works fine with
417 newer versions of the Oracle, eg. 9i and 10g.</p>
418 <p>a. PHP and Oracle reside on the same machine, use default SID.</p>
419 <pre> $conn-&gt;Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger');</pre>
420 <p>b. TNS Name defined in tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES), eg. 'myTNS'</p>
421 <pre> $conn-&gt;PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', 'myTNS');</pre>
422 <p>or</p>
423 <pre> $conn-&gt;PConnect('myTNS', 'scott', 'tiger');</pre>
424 <p>c. Host Address and SID</p>
425 <pre>
426 $conn->connectSID = true;
427 $conn-&gt;Connect('192.168.0.1', 'scott', 'tiger', 'SID');</pre>
428 <p>d. Host Address and Service Name</p>
429 <pre> $conn-&gt;Connect('192.168.0.1', 'scott', 'tiger', 'servicename');</pre>
430 <p>e. Oracle connection string:
431 </p><pre> $cstr = "(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=$host)(PORT=$port))<br> (CONNECT_DATA=(SID=$sid)))";<br> $conn-&gt;Connect($cstr, 'scott', 'tiger');<br></pre>
432 <p>f. ADOdb dsn:
433 </p><pre> $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@tnsname/?persist'; # persist is optional<br> $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect/PConnect<br> <br> $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@host/sid';<br> $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<br> <br> $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@/'; # oracle on local machine<br> $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<br></pre>
434 <p>You can also set the charSet for Oracle 9.2 and later, supported since PHP 4.3.2, ADOdb 4.54:
435 </p><pre> $conn-&gt;charSet = 'we8iso8859p1';<br> $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br> <br> # or<br> $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@tnsname/?charset=WE8MSWIN1252';<br> $db = ADONewConnection($dsn);<br></pre>
436 <a name="dsnless"></a>
437 <h4>DSN-less ODBC ( Access, MSSQL and DB2 examples)</h4>
438 <p>ODBC DSN's can be created in the ODBC control panel, or you can use a DSN-less
439 connection.To use DSN-less connections with ODBC you need PHP 4.3 or later.
440 </p>
441 <p>For Microsoft Access:</p>
442 <pre> $db =&amp; ADONewConnection('access');<br> $dsn = <strong>"Driver={Microsoft Access Driver (*.mdb)};Dbq=d:\\northwind.mdb;Uid=Admin;Pwd=;";</strong>
443 $db-&gt;Connect($dsn);
444 </pre>
445 For Microsoft SQL Server:
446 <pre> $db =&amp; ADONewConnection('odbc_mssql');<br> $dsn = <strong>"Driver={SQL Server};Server=localhost;Database=northwind;"</strong>;<br> $db-&gt;Connect($dsn,'userid','password');<br></pre>
447 or if you prefer to use the mssql extension (which is limited to mssql 6.5 functionality):
448 <pre> $db =&amp; ADONewConnection('mssql');<br> $db-&gt;Execute('localhost', 'userid', 'password', 'northwind');<br></pre>
449 For DB2:
450 <pre>
451 $dbms = 'db2'; # or 'odbc_db2' if db2 extension not available
452 $db =&amp; ADONewConnection($dbms);
453 $dsn = "driver={IBM db2 odbc DRIVER};Database=sample;hostname=localhost;port=50000;protocol=TCPIP;".
454 "uid=root; pwd=secret";<br> $db-&gt;Connect($dsn);
455 </pre>
456 <b>DSN-less Connections with ADO</b><br>
457 If you are using versions of PHP earlier than PHP 4.3.0, DSN-less connections
458 only work with Microsoft's ADO, which is Microsoft's COM based API. An example
459 using the ADOdb library and Microsoft's ADO:
460 <pre>&lt;?php<br> include('adodb.inc.php'); <br> $db = &amp;ADONewConnection("ado_mssql");<br> print "&lt;h1&gt;Connecting DSN-less $db-&gt;databaseType...&lt;/h1&gt;";<br> <br> <b>$myDSN="PROVIDER=MSDASQL;DRIVER={SQL Server};"<br> . "SERVER=flipper;DATABASE=ai;UID=sa;PWD=;" ;</b>
461 $db-&gt;Connect($myDSN);
462
463 $rs = $db-&gt;Execute("select * from table");
464 $arr = $rs-&gt;GetArray();
465 print_r($arr);
466 ?&gt;
467 </pre><a name="speed"></a>
468 <h2>High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips</h2>
469 <p>ADOdb is a big class library, yet it <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/adodb/">consistently beats</a> all other PHP class
470 libraries in performance. This is because it is designed in a layered fashion,
471 like an onion, with the fastest functions in the innermost layer. Stick to the
472 following functions for best performance:</p>
473 <table align="center" border="1" width="40%">
474 <tbody><tr>
475 <td><div align="center"><b>Innermost Layer</b></div></td>
476 </tr>
477 <tr>
478 <td><p align="center">Connect, PConnect, NConnect<br>
479 Execute, CacheExecute<br>
480 SelectLimit, CacheSelectLimit<br>
481 MoveNext, Close <br>
482 qstr, Affected_Rows, Insert_ID</p></td>
483 </tr>
484 </tbody></table>
485 <p>The fastest way to access the field data is by accessing the array $recordset-&gt;fields
486 directly. Also set the global variables <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>
487 = ADODB_FETCH_NUM, and (for oci8, ibase/firebird and odbc) <a href="#adodb_countrecs">$ADODB_COUNTRECS</a> = false
488 before you connect to your database.</p>
489 <p>Consider using bind parameters if your database supports it, as it improves
490 query plan reuse. Use ADOdb's performance tuning system to identify bottlenecks
491 quickly. At the time of writing (Dec 2003), this means oci8 and odbc drivers.</p>
492 <p>Lastly make sure you have a PHP accelerator cache installed such as APC, Turck
493 MMCache, Zend Accelerator or ionCube.</p>
494 <p>Some examples:</p>
495 <table align="center" border="1"><tbody><tr><td><b>Fastest data retrieval using PHP</b></td><td><b>Fastest data retrieval using ADOdb extension</b></td></tr>
496 <tr><td>
497 <pre>$rs =&amp; $rs-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {<br> var_dump($rs-&gt;fields);<br> $rs-&gt;MoveNext();<br>}</pre></td><td>
498 <pre>$rs =&amp; $rs-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>$array = adodb_getall($rs);<br>var_dump($array);<br><br><br></pre></td></tr></tbody></table>
499 <p><b>Advanced Tips</b>
500 </p><p>If you have the <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#extension">ADOdb C extension</a> installed,
501 you can replace your calls to $rs-&gt;MoveNext() with adodb_movenext($rs).
502 This doubles the speed of this operation. For retrieving entire recordsets at once,
503 use GetArray(), which uses the high speed extension function adodb_getall($rs) internally.
504 </p><p>Execute() is the default way to run queries. You can use the low-level functions _Execute() and _query()
505 to reduce query overhead. Both these functions share the same parameters as Execute().
506 </p><p>If you do not have any bind parameters or your database supports
507 binding (without emulation),
508 then you can call _Execute() directly. Calling this function bypasses
509 bind emulation. Debugging is still supported in _Execute().
510 </p><p>If you do not require debugging facilities nor emulated
511 binding, and do not require a recordset to be returned, then you can
512 call _query. This is great for inserts, updates and deletes. Calling
513 this function
514 bypasses emulated binding, debugging, and recordset handling. Either
515 the resultid, true or false are returned by _query(). </p><p>For Informix, you can disable scrollable cursors with $db-&gt;cursorType = 0.
516 </p><p><a name="hack"></a> </p>
517 <h2>Hacking ADOdb Safely</h2>
518 <p>You might want to modify ADOdb for your own purposes. Luckily you can
519 still maintain backward compatibility by sub-classing ADOdb and using the $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION
520 variable. $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION allows you to override the behaviour of ADONewConnection().
521 ADOConnection() checks for this variable and will call
522 the function-name stored in this variable if it is defined.
523 </p><p>In the following example, new functionality for the connection object
524 is placed in the <i>hack_mysql</i> and <i>hack_postgres7</i> classes. The recordset class naming convention
525 can be controlled using $rsPrefix. Here we set it to 'hack_rs_', which will make ADOdb use
526 <i>hack_rs_mysql</i> and <i>hack_rs_postgres7</i> as the recordset classes.
527
528
529 </p><pre>class hack_mysql extends adodb_mysql {<br>var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';<br> /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>class hack_rs_mysql extends ADORecordSet_mysql {<br> /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>class hack_postgres7 extends adodb_postgres7 {<br>var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';<br> /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>class hack_rs_postgres7 extends ADORecordSet_postgres7 {<br> /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>$ADODB_NEWCONNECTION = 'hack_factory';<br><br>function&amp; hack_factory($driver)<br>{<br> if ($driver !== 'mysql' &amp;&amp; $driver !== 'postgres7') return false;<br> <br> $driver = 'hack_'.$driver;<br> $obj = new $driver();<br> return $obj;<br>}<br><br>include_once('adodb.inc.php');<br></pre>
530 <p></p><p>Don't forget to call the constructor of the parent class in
531 your constructor. If you want to use the default ADOdb drivers return
532 false in the above hack_factory() function.
533 <a name="php5"></a>
534 </p><h2>PHP5 Features</h2>
535 ADOdb 4.02 or later will transparently determine which version of PHP you are using.
536 If PHP5 is detected, the following features become available:
537 <ul>
538
539 <li><b>PDO</b>: PDO drivers are available. See the <a href=#pdo>connection examples</a>. Currently PDO drivers are
540 not as powerful as native drivers, and should be treated as experimental.<br><br>
541 <a name="php5iterators"></a>
542 <li><b>Foreach iterators</b>: This is a very natural way of going through a recordset:
543 <pre> $ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;<br> $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br> foreach($rs as $k =&gt; $row) {<br> echo "r1=".$row[0]." r2=".$row[1]."&lt;br&gt;";<br> }<br></pre>
544 <p>
545 <a name="php5exceptions"></a>
546 </p></li><li><b>Exceptions</b>: Just include <i>adodb-exceptions.inc.php</i> and you can now
547 catch exceptions on errors as they occur.
548 <pre> <b>include("../adodb-exceptions.inc.php");</b> <br> include("../adodb.inc.php"); <br> try { <br> $db = NewADOConnection("oci8"); <br> $db-&gt;Connect('','scott','bad-password'); <br> } catch (exception $e) { <br> var_dump($e); <br> adodb_backtrace($e-&gt;gettrace());<br> } <br></pre>
549 <p>Note that reaching EOF is <b>not</b> considered an error nor an exception.
550 </p></li></ul>
551 <h3><a name="drivers"></a>Databases Supported</h3>
552 The <i>name</i> below is the value you pass to NewADOConnection($name) to create a connection object for that database.
553 <p>
554 </p><p>
555 </p><table border="1" width="100%">
556 <tbody><tr valign="top">
557 <td><b>Name</b></td>
558 <td><b>Tested</b></td>
559 <td><b>Database</b></td>
560 <td><b><font size="2">RecordCount() usable</font></b></td>
561 <td><b>Prerequisites</b></td>
562 <td><b>Operating Systems</b></td>
563 </tr>
564 <tr valign="top">
565 <td><b><font size="2">access</font></b></td>
566 <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
567 <td><font size="2">Microsoft Access/Jet. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</font></td>
568 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
569 <td><font size="2">ODBC </font></td>
570 <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
571 </tr>
572 <tr valign="top">
573 <td><b><font size="2">ado</font></b></td>
574 <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
575 <td><p><font size="2">Generic ADO, not tuned for specific databases. Allows
576 DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider. This
577 is the base class for all ado drivers.</font></p>
578 <p><font size="2">You can set $db-&gt;codePage before connecting.</font></p></td>
579 <td><font size="2">? depends on database</font></td>
580 <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
581 <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
582 </tr>
583 <tr valign="top">
584 <td><b><font size="2">ado_access</font></b></td>
585 <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
586 <td><font size="2">Microsoft Access/Jet using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections.
587 For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</font></td>
588 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
589 <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
590 <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
591 </tr>
592 <tr valign="top">
593 <td><b><font size="2">ado_mssql</font></b></td>
594 <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
595 <td><font size="2">Microsoft SQL Server using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections.
596 For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</font></td>
597 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
598 <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
599 <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
600 </tr>
601 <tr valign="top">
602 <td height="54"><b><font size="2">db2</font></b></td>
603 <td height="54"><font size="2">C</font></td>
604 <td height="54"><font size="2">Uses PHP's db2-specific extension for better performance.</font></td>
605 <td height="54"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
606 <td height="54"><font size="2">DB2 CLI/ODBC interface</font></td>
607 <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. Requires IBM DB2 Universal Database client.</font></p></td>
608 </tr>
609 <tr valign="top">
610 <td height="54"><b><font size="2">odbc_db2</font></b></td>
611 <td height="54"><font size="2">C</font></td>
612 <td height="54"><font size="2">Connects to DB2 using generic ODBC extension.</font></td>
613 <td height="54"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
614 <td height="54"><font size="2">DB2 CLI/ODBC interface</font></td>
615 <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://www.faqts.com/knowledge_base/view.phtml/aid/6283/fid/14">Unix
616 install hints</a>. I have had reports that the $host and $database params have to be reversed in Connect() when using the CLI interface.</font></p></td>
617 </tr>
618 <tr valign="top">
619 <td><b><font size="2">vfp</font></b></td>
620 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
621 <td><font size="2">Microsoft Visual FoxPro. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</font></td>
622 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
623 <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
624 <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
625 </tr>
626 <tr valign="top">
627 <td><b><font size="2">fbsql</font></b></td>
628 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
629 <td><font size="2">FrontBase. </font></td>
630 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
631 <td><font size="2">?</font></td>
632 <td> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></p></td>
633 </tr>
634 <tr valign="top">
635 <td><b><font size="2">ibase</font></b></td>
636 <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
637 <td><font size="2">Interbase 6 or earlier. Some users report you might need
638 to use this<br>
639 $db-&gt;PConnect('localhost:c:/ibase/employee.gdb', "sysdba", "masterkey")
640 to connect. Lacks Affected_Rows currently.<br>
641 <br>
642 You can set $db-&gt;role, $db-&gt;dialect, $db-&gt;buffers and $db-&gt;charSet before connecting.</font></td>
643 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
644 <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
645 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
646 </tr>
647 <tr valign="top">
648 <td><b><i><font size="2">firebird</font></i></b></td>
649 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
650 <td><font size="2">Firebird version of interbase.</font></td>
651 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
652 <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
653 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
654 </tr>
655 <tr valign="top">
656 <td><b><i><font size="2">borland_ibase</font></i></b></td>
657 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
658 <td><font size="2">Borland version of Interbase 6.5 or later. Very sad that
659 the forks differ.</font></td>
660 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
661 <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
662 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
663 </tr>
664
665 <tr valign="top">
666 <td><b><font size="2">informix</font></b></td>
667 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
668 <td><font size="2">Generic informix driver. Use this if you are using Informix 7.3 or later.</font></td>
669 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
670 <td><font size="2">Informix client</font></td>
671 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
672 </tr>
673 <tr valign="top">
674 <td><b><font size="2">informix72</font></b></td>
675 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
676 <td><font size="2"> Informix databases before Informix 7.3 that do no support
677 SELECT FIRST.</font></td>
678 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
679 <td><font size="2">Informix client</font></td>
680 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
681 </tr>
682 <tr valign="top">
683 <td><b><font size="2">ldap</font></b></td>
684 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
685 <td><font size="2">LDAP driver. See this example for usage information.</font></td>
686 <td>&nbsp;</td>
687 <td><font size="2">LDAP extension</font></td>
688 <td><font size="2">?</font></td>
689 </tr>
690 <tr valign="top">
691 <td height="73"><b><font size="2">mssql</font></b></td>
692 <td height="73"><font size="2">A</font></td>
693 <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Microsoft SQL Server 7 and later. Works
694 with Microsoft SQL Server 2000 also. Note that date formating is problematic
695 with this driver. For example, the PHP mssql extension does not return
696 the seconds for datetime!</font></p></td>
697 <td height="73"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
698 <td height="73"><font size="2">Mssql client</font></td>
699 <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <br>
700 <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3">Unix install
701 howto</a> and <a href="http://linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=6636&amp;mode=thread&amp;order=0">another
702 one</a>. </font></p></td>
703 </tr>
704 <tr valign="top">
705 <td height="73"><b><font size="2">mssqlpo</font></b></td>
706 <td height="73"><font size="2">A</font></td>
707 <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Portable mssql driver. Identical to above
708 mssql driver, except that '||', the concatenation operator, is converted
709 to '+'. Useful for porting scripts from most other sql variants that use
710 ||.</font></p></td>
711 <td height="73"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
712 <td height="73"><font size="2">Mssql client</font></td>
713 <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3"><br>
714 Unix install howto</a>.</font></p></td>
715 </tr>
716 <tr valign="top">
717 <td><b><font size="2">mysql</font></b></td>
718 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
719 <td><font size="2">MySQL without transaction support. You can also set $db-&gt;clientFlags
720 before connecting.</font></td>
721 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
722 <td><font size="2">MySQL client</font></td>
723 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
724 </tr>
725 <tr valign="top">
726 <td><font size="2"><b>mysqlt</b> or <b>maxsql</b></font></td>
727 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
728 <td> <p><font size="2">MySQL with transaction support. We recommend using
729 || as the concat operator for best portability. This can be done by running
730 MySQL using: <br>
731 <i>mysqld --ansi</i> or <i>mysqld --sql-mode=PIPES_AS_CONCAT</i></font></p></td>
732 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
733 <td><font size="2">MySQL client</font></td>
734 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
735 </tr>
736 <tr valign="top">
737 <td><b><font size="2">oci8</font></b></td>
738 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
739 <td><font size="2">Oracle 8/9. Has more functionality than <i>oracle</i> driver
740 (eg. Affected_Rows). You might have to putenv('ORACLE_HOME=...') before
741 Connect/PConnect. </font> <p><font size="2"> There are 2 ways of connecting
742 - with server IP and service name: <br>
743 <i>PConnect('serverip:1521','scott','tiger','service'</i>)<br>
744 or using an entry in TNSNAMES.ORA or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES: <br>
745 <i>PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname)</i>. </font>
746 </p><p><font size="2">Since 2.31, we support Oracle REF cursor variables directly
747 (see <a href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a>).</font> </p></td>
748 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
749 <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
750 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
751 </tr>
752 <tr valign="top">
753 <td><b><font size="2">oci805</font></b></td>
754 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
755 <td><font size="2">Supports reduced Oracle functionality for Oracle 8.0.5.
756 SelectLimit is not as efficient as in the oci8 or oci8po drivers.</font></td>
757 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
758 <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
759 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
760 </tr>
761 <tr valign="top">
762 <td><b><font size="2">oci8po</font></b></td>
763 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
764 <td><font size="2">Oracle 8/9 portable driver. This is nearly identical with
765 the oci8 driver except (a) bind variables in Prepare() use the ? convention,
766 instead of :bindvar, (b) field names use the more common PHP convention
767 of lowercase names. </font> <p><font size="2">Use this driver if porting
768 from other databases is important. Otherwise the oci8 driver offers better
769 performance. </font> </p></td>
770 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
771 <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
772 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
773 </tr>
774 <tr valign="top">
775 <td><b><font size="2">odbc</font></b></td>
776 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
777 <td><font size="2">Generic ODBC, not tuned for specific databases. To connect,
778 use <br>
779 PConnect('DSN','user','pwd'). This is the base class for all odbc derived
780 drivers.</font></td>
781 <td><font size="2">? depends on database</font></td>
782 <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
783 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3?page=4">Unix
784 hints.</a></font></td>
785 </tr>
786 <tr valign="top">
787 <td><b><font size="2">odbc_mssql</font></b></td>
788 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
789 <td><font size="2">Uses ODBC to connect to MSSQL</font></td>
790 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
791 <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
792 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
793 </tr>
794 <tr valign="top">
795 <td><b><font size="2">odbc_oracle</font></b></td>
796 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
797 <td><font size="2">Uses ODBC to connect to Oracle</font></td>
798 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
799 <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
800 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
801 </tr>
802
803 <tr valign="top">
804 <td><b><font size="2">odbtp</font></b></td>
805 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
806 <td><font size="2">Generic odbtp driver. <a href="http://odbtp.sourceforge.net/">Odbtp</a> is a software for
807 accessing Windows ODBC data sources from other operating systems.</font></td>
808 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
809 <td><font size="2">odbtp</font></td>
810 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
811 </tr>
812 <tr valign="top">
813 <td><b><font size="2">odbtp_unicode</font></b></td>
814 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
815 <td><font size="2">Odtbp with unicode support</font></td>
816 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
817 <td><font size="2">odbtp</font></td>
818 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
819 </tr>
820 <tr valign="top">
821 <td height="34"><b><font size="2">oracle</font></b></td>
822 <td height="34"><font size="2">C</font></td>
823 <td height="34"><font size="2">Implements old Oracle 7 client API. Use oci8
824 driver if possible for better performance.</font></td>
825 <td height="34"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
826 <td height="34"><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
827 <td height="34"><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
828 </tr>
829 <tr valign="top">
830 <td height="34"><b><font size="2">netezza</font></b></td>
831 <td height="34"><font size="2">C</font></td>
832 <td height="34"><font size="2">Netezza driver. Netezza is based on postgres code-base.</font></td>
833 <td height="34"><font size="2">Y</font></td>
834 <td height="34"><font size="2">?</font></td>
835 <td height="34"><font size="2">?</font></td>
836 </tr>
837 <tr valign="top">
838 <td><b><font size="2">pdo</font></b></td>
839 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
840 <td><font size="2">Generic PDO driver for PHP5. </font></td>
841 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
842 <td><font size="2">PDO extension and database specific drivers</font></td>
843 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
844 </tr>
845 <tr valign="top">
846 <td><b><font size="2">postgres</font></b></td>
847 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
848 <td><font size="2">Generic PostgreSQL driver. Currently identical to postgres7
849 driver.</font></td>
850 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
851 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
852 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
853 </tr>
854 <tr valign="top">
855 <td><b><font size="2">postgres64</font></b></td>
856 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
857 <td><font size="2">For PostgreSQL 6.4 and earlier which does not support LIMIT
858 internally.</font></td>
859 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
860 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
861 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
862 </tr>
863 <tr valign="top">
864 <td><b><font size="2">postgres7</font></b></td>
865 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
866 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL which supports LIMIT and other version 7 functionality.</font></td>
867 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
868 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
869 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
870 </tr>
871 <tr valign="top">
872 <td><b><font size="2">postgres8</font></b></td>
873 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
874 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL which supports version 8 functionality.</font></td>
875 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
876 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
877 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
878 </tr>
879 <tr valign="top">
880 <td><b><font size="2">sapdb</font></b></td>
881 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
882 <td><font size="2">SAP DB. Should work reliably as based on ODBC driver.</font></td>
883 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
884 <td><font size="2">SAP ODBC client</font></td>
885 <td> <p><font size="2">?</font></p></td>
886 </tr>
887 <tr valign="top">
888 <td><b><font size="2">sqlanywhere</font></b></td>
889 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
890 <td><font size="2">Sybase SQL Anywhere. Should work reliably as based on ODBC
891 driver.</font></td>
892 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
893 <td><font size="2">SQL Anywhere ODBC client</font></td>
894 <td> <p><font size="2">?</font></p></td>
895 </tr>
896 <tr valign="top">
897 <td height="54"><b><font size="2">sqlite</font></b></td>
898 <td height="54"><font size="2">B</font></td>
899 <td height="54"><font size="2">SQLite.</font></td>
900 <td height="54"><font size="2">Y</font></td>
901 <td height="54"><font size="2">-</font></td>
902 <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
903 </tr>
904 <tr valign="top">
905 <td height="54"><b><font size="2">sqlitepo</font></b></td>
906 <td height="54"><font size="2">B</font></td>
907 <td height="54"><font size="2">Portable SQLite driver. This is because assoc mode does not work like other drivers in sqlite.
908 Namely, when selecting (joining) multiple tables, the table
909 names are included in the assoc keys in the "sqlite" driver.</font><p>
910 <font size="2"> In "sqlitepo" driver, the table names are stripped from the returned column names.
911 When this results in a conflict, the first field get preference.
912 </font></p></td>
913 <td height="54"><font size="2">Y</font></td>
914 <td height="54"><font size="2">-</font></td>
915 <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
916 </tr>
917
918
919 <tr valign="top">
920 <td><b><font size="2">sybase</font></b></td>
921 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
922 <td><font size="2">Sybase. </font></td>
923 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
924 <td><font size="2">Sybase client</font></td>
925 <td> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
926 </tr>
927
928 <tr valign="top">
929 <td><b><font size="2">sybase_ase</font></b></td>
930 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
931 <td><font size="2">Sybase ASE. </font></td>
932 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
933 <td><font size="2">Sybase client</font></td>
934 <td> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
935 </tr>
936 </tbody></table>
937
938 <p></p><p>The "Tested" column indicates how extensively the code has been tested
939 and used. <br>
940 A = well tested and used by many people<br>
941 B = tested and usable, but some features might not be implemented<br>
942 C = user contributed or experimental driver. Might not fully support all of
943 the latest features of ADOdb. </p>
944 <p>The column "RecordCount() usable" indicates whether RecordCount()
945 return the number of rows, or returns -1 when a SELECT statement is executed.
946 If this column displays Y/N then the RecordCount() is emulated when the global
947 variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS=true (this is the default). Note that for large recordsets,
948 it might be better to disable RecordCount() emulation because substantial amounts
949 of memory are required to cache the recordset for counting. Also there is a
950 speed penalty of 40-50% if emulation is required. This is emulated in most databases
951 except for PostgreSQL and MySQL. This variable is checked every time a query
952 is executed, so you can selectively choose which recordsets to count.</p>
953 <p>
954 </p><hr />
955 <h1>Tutorials<a name="quickstart"></a></h1>
956 <h3>Example 1: Select Statement<a name="ex1"></a></h3>
957 <p>Task: Connect to the Access Northwind DSN, display the first 2 columns of each
958 row.</p>
959 <p>In this example, we create a ADOConnection object, which represents the connection
960 to the database. The connection is initiated with <a href="#pconnect"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">PConnect</font></a>,
961 which is a persistent connection. Whenever we want to query the database, we
962 call the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection.<a href="#execute">Execute</a>()</font>
963 function. This returns an ADORecordSet object which is actually a cursor that
964 holds the current row in the array <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">fields[]</font>.
965 We use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font>
966 to move from row to row.</p>
967 <p>NB: A useful function that is not used in this example is <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#selectlimit">SelectLimit</a></font>,
968 which allows us to limit the number of rows shown.
969 </p><pre>&lt;?<br><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind DSN<br>$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Execute('select * from products');<br>if (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>) <br> print $<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;ErrorMsg();<br>else<br><b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) {<br> <b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';<br> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();<br>}</font><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">
970
971 $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br></font>
972 ?&gt;
973 </pre>
974 <p>The $<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">recordSet</font> returned stores
975 the current row in the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;fields</font>
976 array, indexed by column number (starting from zero). We use the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font>
977 function to move to the next row. The <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">EOF</font>
978 property is set to true when end-of-file is reached. If an error occurs in Execute(),
979 we return false instead of a recordset.</p>
980 <p>The <code>$recordSet-&gt;fields[]</code> array is generated by the PHP database
981 extension. Some database extensions only index by number and do not index the
982 array by field name. To force indexing by name - that is associative arrays
983 - use the SetFetchMode function. Each recordset saves and uses whatever fetch
984 mode was set when the recordset was created in Execute() or SelectLimit().
985 </p><pre> $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);<br> $rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);<br> $rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i>
986 print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i>
987 </pre>
988 <p> </p>
989 <p>To get the number of rows in the select statement, you can use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a>()</font>.
990 Note that it can return -1 if the number of rows returned cannot be determined.</p>
991 <h3>Example 2: Advanced Select with Field Objects<a name="ex2"></a></h3>
992 <p>Select a table, display the first two columns. If the second column is a date
993 or timestamp, reformat the date to US format.</p>
994 <pre>&lt;?<br><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br>$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Execute('select CustomerID,OrderDate from Orders');<br>if (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>) <br> print $<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;ErrorMsg();<br>else<br><b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) {<br> $<font color="#660000">fld</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;FetchField</b></font><font color="#006600">(</font>1<font color="#006600">);</font>
995 $<font color="#660000">type</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;MetaType</b></font>($fld-&gt;type);<br><br> <b>if</b> ( $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'D' || $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'T') <br> <b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.<br> <b><font color="#336600">$</font></b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b><font color="#336600">-&gt;UserDate</font></b>($<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1],'<b>m/d/Y</b>').'&lt;BR&gt;';<br> <b>else </b>
996 <b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';<br><br> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();<br>}</font><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">
997 $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br></font>
998 ?&gt;
999 </pre>
1000 <p>In this example, we check the field type of the second column using <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a>().</font>
1001 This returns an object with at least 3 fields.</p>
1002 <ul>
1003 <li><b>name</b>: name of column</li>
1004 <li> <b>type</b>: native field type of column</li>
1005 <li> <b>max_length</b>: maximum length of field. Some databases such as MySQL
1006 do not return the maximum length of the field correctly. In these cases max_length
1007 will be set to -1.</li>
1008 </ul>
1009 <p>We then use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font>
1010 to translate the native type to a <i>generic</i> type. Currently the following
1011 <i>generic</i> types are defined:</p>
1012 <ul>
1013 <li><b>C</b>: character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type="text"&gt;
1014 tag.</li>
1015 <li><b>X</b>: TeXt, large text fields that should be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
1016 <li><b>B</b>: Blobs, or Binary Large Objects. Typically images.
1017 </li><li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
1018 <li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
1019 <li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
1020 <li><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer field</li>
1021 <li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes autoincrement, numeric, floating point,
1022 real and integer. </li>
1023 <li><b>R</b>: Serial field. Includes serial, autoincrement integers. This works
1024 for selected databases. </li>
1025 </ul>
1026 <p>If the metatype is of type date or timestamp, then we print it using the user
1027 defined date format with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#userdate">UserDate</a>(),</font>
1028 which converts the PHP SQL date string format to a user defined one. Another
1029 use for <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font>
1030 is data validation before doing an SQL insert or update.</p>
1031 <h3>Example 3: Inserting<a name="ex3"></a></h3>
1032 <p>Insert a row to the Orders table containing dates and strings that need to
1033 be quoted before they can be accepted by the database, eg: the single-quote
1034 in the word <i>John's</i>.</p>
1035 <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection<br><br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br>$<font color="#660000">shipto</font> = <font color="#006600"><b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b></font>("<i>John's Old Shoppe</i>");<br><br>$<font color="#660000">sql</font> = "insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) ";<br>$<font color="#660000">sql</font> .= "values ('ANATR',2,".<b><font color="#006600">$conn-&gt;DBDate(</font>time()<font color="#006600">)</font></b><font color="#006600">.</font>",$<font color="#660000">shipto</font>)";<br><br><b>if</b> ($<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($<font color="#660000">sql</font>) <font color="#336600"><b>=== false</b></font>) {<br> <b>print</b> 'error inserting: '.<font color="#336600"><b>$conn-&gt;ErrorMsg()</b></font>.'&lt;BR&gt;';<br>}<br>?&gt;<br></pre>
1036 <p>In this example, we see the advanced date and quote handling facilities of
1037 ADOdb. The unix timestamp (which is a long integer) is appropriately formated
1038 for Access with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>()</font>,
1039 and the right escape character is used for quoting the <i>John's Old Shoppe</i>,
1040 which is<b> </b><i>John'<b>'</b>s Old Shoppe</i> and not PHP's default <i>John<b>'</b>s
1041 Old Shoppe</i> with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#qstr">qstr</a>()</font>.
1042 </p>
1043 <p>Observe the error-handling of the Execute statement. False is returned by<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">
1044 <a href="#execute">Execute</a>() </font>if an error occured. The error message
1045 for the last error that occurred is displayed in <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font>.
1046 Note: <i>php_track_errors</i> might have to be enabled for error messages to
1047 be saved.</p>
1048 <h3> Example 4: Debugging<a name="ex4"></a></h3>
1049 <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br><font>$<font color="#663300">shipto</font> = <b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b>("John's Old Shoppe");<br>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = "insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) ";<br>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> .= "values ('ANATR',2,".$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;FormatDate(time()).",$shipto)";<br><b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;debug = true;</font></b>
1050 <b>if</b> ($<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($sql) <b>=== false</b>) <b>print</b> 'error inserting';</font>
1051 ?&gt;
1052 </pre>
1053 <p>In the above example, we have turned on debugging by setting <b>debug = true</b>.
1054 This will display the SQL statement before execution, and also show any error
1055 messages. There is no need to call <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font>
1056 in this case. For displaying the recordset, see the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#exrs2html">rs2html</a>()
1057 </font>example.</p>
1058 <p>Also see the section on <a href="#errorhandling">Custom Error Handlers</a>.</p>
1059 <h3>Example 5: MySQL and Menus<a name="ex5"></a></h3>
1060 <p>Connect to MySQL database <i>agora</i>, and generate a &lt;select&gt; menu
1061 from an SQL statement where the &lt;option&gt; captions are in the 1st column,
1062 and the value to send back to the server is in the 2nd column.</p>
1063 <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br><font>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';<br>$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($sql);<br><b>print</b> <b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">rs</font>-&gt;GetMenu('GetCust','Mary Rosli');<br>?&gt;</font></b></font></pre>
1064 <p>Here we define a menu named GetCust, with the menu option 'Mary Rosli' selected.
1065 See <a href="#getmenu"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">GetMenu</font></a><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">()</font>.
1066 We also have functions that return the recordset as an array: <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#getarray">GetArray</a>()</font>,
1067 and as an associative array with the key being the first column: <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a>().</p>
1068 <h3>Example 6: Connecting to 2 Databases At Once<a name="ex6"></a></h3>
1069 <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#663300">conn1</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a mysql connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn2</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('oracle'); # create a oracle connection<br><br>$conn1-&gt;PConnect($server, $userid, $password, $database);<br>$conn2-&gt;PConnect(false, $ora_userid, $ora_pwd, $oraname);<br><br>$conn1-&gt;Execute('insert ...');<br>$conn2-&gt;Execute('update ...');<br>?&gt;</pre>
1070 <p>
1071 </p><h3>Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL<a name="ex7"></a></h3>
1072 <p>Since ADOdb 4.56, we support <a href="reference.functions.getupdatesql.html#autoexecute">AutoExecute()</a>,
1073 which simplifies things by providing an advanced wrapper for GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL(). For example,
1074 an INSERT can be carried out with:
1075
1076 <pre>
1077 $record["firstname"] = "Bob";
1078 $record["lastname"] = "Smith";
1079 $record["created"] = time();
1080 $insertSQL = $conn->AutoExecute($rs, $record, 'INSERT');
1081 </pre>
1082
1083 and an UPDATE with:
1084 <pre>
1085 $record["firstname"] = "Caroline";
1086 $record["lastname"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith
1087 $insertSQL = $conn->AutoExecute($rs, $record, 'UPDATE', 'id = 1');
1088 </pre>
1089 <p>
1090 The rest of this section is out-of-date:
1091 <p>ADOdb 1.31 and later supports two new recordset functions: GetUpdateSQL( ) and
1092 GetInsertSQL( ). This allow you to perform a "SELECT * FROM table query WHERE...",
1093 make a copy of the $rs-&gt;fields, modify the fields, and then generate the SQL to
1094 update or insert into the table automatically.
1095 <p> We show how the functions can be used when accessing a table with the following
1096 fields: (ID, FirstName, LastName, Created).
1097 </p><p> Before these functions can be called, you need to initialize the recordset
1098 by performing a select on the table. Idea and code by Jonathan Younger jyounger#unilab.com.
1099 Since ADOdb 2.42, you can pass a table name instead of a recordset into
1100 GetInsertSQL (in $rs), and it will generate an insert statement for that table.
1101 </p><p>
1102 </p><pre>&lt;?<br>#==============================================<br># SAMPLE GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() code<br>#==============================================<br>include('adodb.inc.php');<br>include('tohtml.inc.php');<br><br>#==========================<br># This code tests an insert<br><br>$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = -1"; <br># Select an empty record from the database<br><br>$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection("mysql"); # create a connection<br>$conn-&gt;debug=1;<br>$conn-&gt;PConnect("localhost", "admin", "", "test"); # connect to MySQL, testdb<br>$rs = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the empty recordset<br><br>$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to insert<br><br># Set the values for the fields in the record<br># Note that field names are case-insensitive<br>$record["firstname"] = "Bob";<br>$record["lastNamE"] = "Smith";<br>$record["creaTed"] = time();<br><br># Pass the empty recordset and the array containing the data to insert<br># into the GetInsertSQL function. The function will process the data and return<br># a fully formatted insert sql statement.<br>$insertSQL = $conn-&gt;GetInsertSQL($rs, $record);<br><br>$conn-&gt;Execute($insertSQL); # Insert the record into the database<br><br>#==========================<br># This code tests an update<br><br>$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = 1"; <br># Select a record to update<br><br>$rs = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the existing record to update<br><br>$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to update<br><br># Set the values for the fields in the record<br># Note that field names are case-insensitive<br>$record["firstname"] = "Caroline";<br>$record["LasTnAme"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith<br><br># Pass the single record recordset and the array containing the data to update<br># into the GetUpdateSQL function. The function will process the data and return<br># a fully formatted update sql statement with the correct WHERE clause.<br># If the data has not changed, no recordset is returned<br>$updateSQL = $conn-&gt;GetUpdateSQL($rs, $record);<br><br>$conn-&gt;Execute($updateSQL); # Update the record in the database<br>$conn-&gt;Close();<br>?&gt;<br></pre>
1103 <a name="ADODB_FORCE_TYPE"></a>
1104 <b>$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</b><p>
1105 The behaviour of AutoExecute(), GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL()
1106 when converting empty or null PHP variables to SQL is controlled by the
1107 global $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE variable. Set it to one of the values below. Default
1108 is ADODB_FORCE_VALUE (3):
1109 </p><pre>0 = ignore empty fields. All empty fields in array are ignored.<br>1 = force null. All empty, php null and string 'null' fields are changed to sql NULL values.<br>2 = force empty. All empty, php null and string 'null' fields are changed to sql empty '' or 0 values.<br>3 = force value. Value is left as it is. Php null and string 'null' are set to sql NULL values and <br> empty fields '' are set to empty '' sql values.<br><br>define('ADODB_FORCE_IGNORE',0);<br>define('ADODB_FORCE_NULL',1);<br>define('ADODB_FORCE_EMPTY',2);<br>define('ADODB_FORCE_VALUE',3);<br></pre>
1110 <p>
1111 Thanks to Niko (nuko#mbnet.fi) for the $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE code.
1112 </p><p>
1113 Note: the constant ADODB_FORCE_NULLS is obsolete since 4.52 and is ignored. Set $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE = ADODB_FORCE_NULL
1114 for equivalent behaviour.
1115 <p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.
1116 </p><h3>Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous<a name="ex8"></a></h3>
1117 <p> The following code creates a very simple recordset pager, where you can scroll
1118 from page to page of a recordset.</p>
1119 <pre>include_once('../adodb.inc.php');<br>include_once('../adodb-pager.inc.php');<br>session_start();<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br><br>$db-&gt;Connect('localhost','root','','xphplens');<br><br>$sql = "select * from adoxyz ";<br><br>$pager = new ADODB_Pager($db,$sql);<br>$pager-&gt;Render($rows_per_page=5);</pre>
1120 <p>This will create a basic record pager that looks like this: <a name="scr"></a>
1121 </p><p>
1122 <table bgcolor="beige" border="1">
1123 <tbody><tr>
1124 <td> <a href="#scr"><code>|&lt;</code></a> &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>&lt;&lt;</code></a>
1125 &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>&gt;&gt;</code></a> &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>&gt;|</code></a>
1126 &nbsp; </td>
1127 </tr>
1128 <tr>
1129 <td><table bgcolor="white" border="1" cols="4" width="100%">
1130 <tbody><tr><th>ID</th>
1131 <th>First Name</th>
1132 <th>Last Name</th>
1133 <th>Date Created</th>
1134 </tr><tr>
1135 <td align="right">36&nbsp;</td>
1136 <td>Alan&nbsp;</td>
1137 <td>Turing&nbsp;</td>
1138 <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1139 </tr>
1140 <tr>
1141 <td align="right">37&nbsp;</td>
1142 <td>Serena&nbsp;</td>
1143 <td>Williams&nbsp;</td>
1144 <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1145 </tr>
1146 <tr>
1147 <td align="right">38&nbsp;</td>
1148 <td>Yat Sun&nbsp;</td>
1149 <td>Sun&nbsp;</td>
1150 <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1151 </tr>
1152 <tr>
1153 <td align="right">39&nbsp;</td>
1154 <td>Wai Hun&nbsp;</td>
1155 <td>See&nbsp;</td>
1156 <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1157 </tr>
1158 <tr>
1159 <td align="right">40&nbsp;</td>
1160 <td>Steven&nbsp;</td>
1161 <td>Oey&nbsp;</td>
1162 <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1163 </tr>
1164 </tbody></table></td>
1165 </tr>
1166 <tr>
1167 <td><font size="-1">Page 8/10</font></td>
1168 </tr>
1169 </tbody></table>
1170 </p><p>The number of rows to display at one time is controled by the Render($rows)
1171 method. If you do not pass any value to Render(), ADODB_Pager will default to
1172 10 records per page.
1173 </p><p>You can control the column titles by modifying your SQL (supported by most
1174 databases):
1175 </p><pre>$sql = 'select id as "ID", firstname as "First Name", <br> lastname as "Last Name", created as "Date Created" <br> from adoxyz';</pre>
1176 <p>The above code can be found in the <i>adodb/tests/testpaging.php</i> example
1177 included with this release, and the class ADODB_Pager in <i>adodb/adodb-pager.inc.php</i>.
1178 The ADODB_Pager code can be adapted by a programmer so that the text links can
1179 be replaced by images, and the dull white background be replaced with more interesting
1180 colors.
1181 </p><p>You can also allow display of html by setting $pager-&gt;htmlSpecialChars = false.
1182 </p><p>Some of the code used here was contributed by Iv&aacute;n Oliva and Cornel
1183 G. </p>
1184 <h3><a name="ex9"></a>Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</h3>
1185 <p>We provide some helper functions to export in comma-separated-value (CSV) and
1186 tab-delimited formats:</p>
1187 <pre><b>include_once('/path/to/adodb/toexport.inc.php');</b><br>include_once('/path/to/adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br>
1188 $db = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>$db-&gt;Connect($server, $userid, $password, $database);<br><br>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select fname as "First Name", surname as "Surname" from table');<br><br>print "&lt;pre&gt;";<br>print <b>rs2csv</b>($rs); # return a string, CSV format<p>print '&lt;hr&gt;';<br><br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst(); # note, some databases do not support MoveFirst<br>print <b>rs2tab</b>($rs,<i>false</i>); # return a string, tab-delimited<br> # false == suppress field names in first line</p>print '&lt;hr&gt;';<br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br><b>rs2tabout</b>($rs); # send to stdout directly (there is also an rs2csvout function)<br>print "&lt;/pre&gt;";<br><br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br>$fp = fopen($path, "w");<br>if ($fp) {<br> <b>rs2csvfile</b>($rs, $fp); # write to file (there is also an rs2tabfile function)<br> fclose($fp);<br>}<br></pre>
1189 <p> Carriage-returns or newlines are converted to spaces. Field names are returned
1190 in the first line of text. Strings containing the delimiter character are quoted
1191 with double-quotes. Double-quotes are double-quoted again. This conforms to
1192 Excel import and export guide-lines.
1193 </p><p>All the above functions take as an optional last parameter, $addtitles which
1194 defaults to <i>true</i>. When set to <i>false</i> field names in the first line
1195 are suppressed. <br>
1196 </p><h3>Example 10: Recordset Filters<a name="ex10"></a></h3>
1197 <p>Sometimes we want to pre-process all rows in a recordset before we use it.
1198 For example, we want to ucwords all text in recordset.
1199 </p><pre>include_once('adodb/rsfilter.inc.php');<br>include_once('adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br><br>// ucwords() every element in the recordset<br>function do_ucwords(&amp;$arr,$rs)<br>{<br> foreach($arr as $k =&gt; $v) {<br> $arr[$k] = ucwords($v);<br> }<br>}<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>$db-&gt;PConnect('server','user','pwd','db');<br><br>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select ... from table');<br>$rs = <b>RSFilter</b>($rs,'do_ucwords');<br></pre>
1200 <p>The <i>RSFilter</i> function takes 2 parameters, the recordset, and the name
1201 of the <i>filter</i> function. It returns the processed recordset scrolled to
1202 the first record. The <i>filter</i> function takes two parameters, the current
1203 row as an array, and the recordset object. For future compatibility, you should
1204 not use the original recordset object. </p>
1205 <h3>Example 11:<a name="ex11"></a> Smart Transactions</h3>
1206 The old way of doing transactions required you to use
1207 <pre>$conn-&gt;<b>BeginTrans</b>();<br>$ok = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if ($ok) $ok = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql2);<br>if (!$ok) $conn-&gt;<b>RollbackTrans</b>();<br>else $conn-&gt;<b>CommitTrans</b>();<br></pre>
1208 This is very complicated for large projects because you have to track the error
1209 status. Smart Transactions is much simpler. You start a smart transaction by calling
1210 StartTrans():
1211 <pre>$conn-&gt;<b>StartTrans</b>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);<br>$conn-&gt;<b>CompleteTrans</b>();<br></pre>
1212 CompleteTrans() detects when an SQL error occurs, and will Rollback/Commit as
1213 appropriate. To specificly force a rollback even if no error occured, use FailTrans().
1214 Note that the rollback is done in CompleteTrans(), and not in FailTrans().
1215 <pre>$conn-&gt;<b>StartTrans</b>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if (!CheckRecords()) $conn-&gt;<strong>FailTrans</strong>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);<br>$conn-&gt;<b>CompleteTrans</b>();<br></pre>
1216 <p>You can also check if a transaction has failed, using HasFailedTrans(), which
1217 returns true if FailTrans() was called, or there was an error in the SQL execution.
1218 Make sure you call HasFailedTrans() before you call CompleteTrans(), as it is
1219 only works between StartTrans/CompleteTrans.
1220 </p><p>Lastly, StartTrans/CompleteTrans is nestable, and only the outermost block
1221 is executed. In contrast, BeginTrans/CommitTrans/RollbackTrans is NOT nestable.
1222 </p><pre>$conn-&gt;<strong>StartTrans</strong>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br> $conn-&gt;<strong>StartTrans</strong>(); <font color="#006600"># ignored</font>
1223 if (!CheckRecords()) $conn-&gt;FailTrans();
1224 $conn-&gt;<strong>CompleteTrans</strong>(); <font color="#006600"># ignored</font>
1225 $conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);
1226 $conn-&gt;<strong>CompleteTrans</strong>();<br></pre>
1227 <p>Note: Savepoints are currently not supported.
1228 </p><h2><a name="errorhandling"></a>Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</h2>
1229 <p>ADOdb supports PHP5 exceptions. Just include <i>adodb-exceptions.inc.php</i> and you can now
1230 catch exceptions on errors as they occur.
1231 </p><pre> <b>include("../adodb-exceptions.inc.php");</b> <br> include("../adodb.inc.php"); <br> try { <br> $db = NewADOConnection("oci8://scott:bad-password@mytns/"); <br> } catch (exception $e) { <br> var_dump($e); <br> adodb_backtrace($e-&gt;gettrace());<br> } <br></pre>
1232 <p> ADOdb also provides two custom handlers which you can modify for your needs. The
1233 first one is in the <b>adodb-errorhandler.inc.php</b> file. This makes use of
1234 the standard PHP functions <a href="http://php.net/error_reporting">error_reporting</a>
1235 to control what error messages types to display, and <a href="http://php.net/trigger_error">trigger_error</a>
1236 which invokes the default PHP error handler.
1237 </p><p> Including the above file will cause <i>trigger_error($errorstring,E_USER_ERROR)</i>
1238 to be called when<br>
1239 (a) Connect() or PConnect() fails, or <br>
1240 (b) a function that executes SQL statements such as Execute() or SelectLimit()
1241 has an error.<br>
1242 (c) GenID() appears to go into an infinite loop.
1243 </p><p> The $errorstring is generated by ADOdb and will contain useful debugging information
1244 similar to the error.log data generated below. This file adodb-errorhandler.inc.php
1245 should be included before you create any ADOConnection objects.
1246 </p><p> If you define error_reporting(0), no errors will be passed to the error handler.
1247 If you set error_reporting(E_ALL), all errors will be passed to the error handler.
1248 You still need to use <b>ini_set("display_errors", "0" or "1")</b> to control
1249 the display of errors.
1250 </p><pre>&lt;?php<br><b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # pass any error messages triggered to error handler<br>include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b>
1251 include('adodb.inc.php');
1252 include('tohtml.inc.php');
1253 $c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
1254 $c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
1255 $rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');
1256 if ($rs) rs2html($rs);
1257 ?&gt;
1258 </pre>
1259 <p> If you want to log the error message, you can do so by defining the following
1260 optional constants ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE and ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST. ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE
1261 is the error log message type (see <a href="http://php.net/error_log">error_log</a>
1262 in the PHP manual). In this case we set it to 3, which means log to the file
1263 defined by the constant ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST.
1264 </p><pre>&lt;?php<br><b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # report all errors<br>ini_set("display_errors", "0"); # but do not echo the errors<br>define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE',3);<br>define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST','C:/errors.log');<br>include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b>
1265 include('adodb.inc.php');
1266 include('tohtml.inc.php');
1267
1268 $c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
1269 $c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
1270 $rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); ## invalid table productsz
1271 if ($rs) rs2html($rs);
1272 ?&gt;
1273 </pre>
1274 The following message will be logged in the error.log file:
1275 <pre>(2001-10-28 14:20:38) mysql error: [1146: Table 'northwind.productsz' doesn't exist] in<br> EXECUTE("select * from productsz")<br></pre>
1276 <h3>PEAR_ERROR</h3>
1277 The second error handler is <b>adodb-errorpear.inc.php</b>. This will create a
1278 PEAR_Error derived object whenever an error occurs. The last PEAR_Error object
1279 created can be retrieved using ADODB_Pear_Error().
1280 <pre>&lt;?php<br><b>include('adodb-errorpear.inc.php');</b>
1281 include('adodb.inc.php');
1282 include('tohtml.inc.php');
1283 $c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
1284 $c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
1285 $rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');
1286 if ($rs) rs2html($rs);
1287 else {
1288 <b>$e = ADODB_Pear_Error();<br> echo '&lt;p&gt;',$e-&gt;message,'&lt;/p&gt;';</b>
1289 }
1290 ?&gt;
1291 </pre>
1292 <p> You can use a PEAR_Error derived class by defining the constant ADODB_PEAR_ERROR_CLASS
1293 before the adodb-errorpear.inc.php file is included. For easy debugging, you
1294 can set the default error handler in the beginning of the PHP script to PEAR_ERROR_DIE,
1295 which will cause an error message to be printed, then halt script execution:
1296 </p><pre>include('PEAR.php');<br>PEAR::setErrorHandling('PEAR_ERROR_DIE');<br></pre>
1297 <p> Note that we do not explicitly return a PEAR_Error object to you when an error
1298 occurs. We return false instead. You have to call ADODB_Pear_Error() to get
1299 the last error or use the PEAR_ERROR_DIE technique.
1300 </p>
1301 <h3>MetaError and MetaErrMsg</h3>
1302 <p>If you need error messages that work across multiple databases, then use <a href="#metaerror">MetaError()</a>, which returns a virtualized error number, based on PEAR DB's error number system, and <a href=<a href="#metaerrmsg">MetaErrMsg()</a>.
1303
1304 <h4>Error Messages</h4>
1305 <p>Error messages are outputted using the static method ADOConnnection::outp($msg,$newline=true).
1306 By default, it sends the messages to the client. You can override this to perform
1307 error-logging.
1308 </p><h2><a name="dsn"></a> Data Source Names</h2>
1309 <p>We now support connecting using PEAR style DSN's. A DSN is a connection string
1310 of the form:</p>
1311 <p>$dsn = <i>"$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename"</i>;</p>
1312 <p>An example:</p>
1313 <pre> $username = 'root';<br> $password = '';<br> $hostname = 'localhost';<br> $databasename = 'xphplens';<br> $driver = 'mysql';<br> $dsn = "$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename"<br> $db = NewADOConnection(); <br> # DB::Connect($dsn) also works if you include 'adodb/adodb-pear.inc.php' at the top<br> $rs = $db-&gt;query('select firstname,lastname from adoxyz');<br> $cnt = 0;<br> while ($arr = $rs-&gt;fetchRow()) {<br> print_r($arr); print "&lt;br&gt;";<br> }</pre>
1314 <p></p>
1315 <p> <a href="#dsnsupport">More info and connection examples</a> on the DSN format.
1316
1317 </p><h2><a name="pear"></a>PEAR Compatibility</h2>
1318 We support DSN's (see above), and the following functions:
1319 <pre><b> DB_Common</b>
1320 query - returns PEAR_Error on error
1321 limitQuery - return PEAR_Error on error
1322 prepare - does not return PEAR_Error on error
1323 execute - does not return PEAR_Error on error
1324 setFetchMode - supports ASSOC and ORDERED
1325 errorNative
1326 quote
1327 nextID
1328 disconnect
1329
1330 getOne
1331 getAssoc
1332 getRow
1333 getCol
1334
1335 <b> DB_Result</b>
1336 numRows - returns -1 if not supported
1337 numCols
1338 fetchInto - does not support passing of fetchmode
1339 fetchRows - does not support passing of fetchmode
1340 free
1341 </pre>
1342 <h2><a name="caching"></a>Caching of Recordsets</h2>
1343 <p>ADOdb now supports caching of recordsets using the CacheExecute( ), CachePageExecute(
1344 ) and CacheSelectLimit( ) functions. There are similar to the non-cache functions,
1345 except that they take a new first parameter, $secs2cache.
1346 </p><p> An example:
1347 </p><pre><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$ADODB_CACHE_DIR = '/usr/ADODB_cache';<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br><font>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';<br>$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;CacheExecute(15,$sql);</font></pre>
1348 <p><font> The first parameter is the number of seconds to cache
1349 the query. Subsequent calls to that query will used the cached version stored
1350 in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. To force a query to execute and flush the cache, call CacheExecute()
1351 with the first parameter set to zero. Alternatively, use the CacheFlush($sql)
1352 call. </font></p>
1353 <p><font>For the sake of security, we recommend you set <i>register_globals=off</i>
1354 in php.ini if you are using $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.</font></p>
1355 <p>In ADOdb 1.80 onwards, the secs2cache parameter is optional in CacheSelectLimit()
1356 and CacheExecute(). If you leave it out, it will use the $connection-&gt;cacheSecs
1357 parameter, which defaults to 60 minutes.
1358 </p><pre> $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br> $conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; # cache 24 hours<br> $rs = $conn-&gt;CacheExecute('select * from table');<br></pre>
1359 <p>Please note that magic_quotes_runtime should be turned off. <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?LeNs#LensBM_forummsg">More
1360 info</a>, and do not change $ADODB_FETCH_MODE (or SetFetchMode)
1361 as the cached recordset will use the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE set when the query was executed. <font>
1362 <h2><a name="pivot"></a>Pivot Tables</h2>
1363 </font> </p><p><font>Since ADOdb 2.30, we support the generation of
1364 SQL to create pivot tables, also known as cross-tabulations. For further explanation
1365 read this DevShed <a href="http://www.devshed.com/Server_Side/MySQL/MySQLWiz/">Cross-Tabulation
1366 tutorial</a>. We assume that your database supports the SQL case-when expression. </font></p>
1367 <font>
1368 <p>In this example, we will use the Northwind database from Microsoft. In the
1369 database, we have a products table, and we want to analyze this table by <i>suppliers
1370 versus product categories</i>. We will place the suppliers on each row, and
1371 pivot on categories. So from the table on the left, we generate the pivot-table
1372 on the right:</p>
1373 </font>
1374 <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1375 <tbody><tr>
1376 <td>
1377 <table align="center" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2" width="142">
1378 <tbody><tr>
1379 <td><i>Supplier</i></td>
1380 <td><i>Category</i></td>
1381 </tr>
1382 <tr>
1383 <td>supplier1</td>
1384 <td>category1</td>
1385 </tr>
1386 <tr>
1387 <td>supplier2</td>
1388 <td>category1</td>
1389 </tr>
1390 <tr>
1391 <td>supplier2</td>
1392 <td>category2</td>
1393 </tr>
1394 </tbody></table>
1395 </td>
1396 <td> <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">--&gt;</font></td>
1397 <td>
1398 <table align="center" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1399 <tbody><tr>
1400 <td>&nbsp;</td>
1401 <td><i>category1</i></td>
1402 <td><i>category2</i></td>
1403 <td><i>total</i></td>
1404 </tr>
1405 <tr>
1406 <td><i>supplier1</i></td>
1407 <td align="right">1</td>
1408 <td align="right">0</td>
1409 <td align="right">1</td>
1410 </tr>
1411 <tr>
1412 <td><i>supplier2</i></td>
1413 <td align="right">1</td>
1414 <td align="right">1</td>
1415 <td align="right">2</td>
1416 </tr>
1417 </tbody></table>
1418 </td>
1419 </tr>
1420 </tbody></table>
1421 <font>
1422 </font><p><font>The following code will generate the SQL for a cross-tabulation:
1423 </font></p><pre><font># Query the main "product" table<br># Set the rows to SupplierName<br># and the columns to the values of Categories<br># and define the joins to link to lookup tables <br># "categories" and "suppliers"<br>#<br> include "adodb/pivottable.inc.php";<br> $sql = PivotTableSQL(<br> $gDB, # adodb connection<br> 'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s', # tables<br> 'SupplierName', # rows (multiple fields allowed)<br> 'CategoryName', # column to pivot on <br> 'p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID' # joins/where<br>);<br></font></pre>
1424
1425 <p><font> This will generate the following SQL:</font></p>
1426 <p><code><font size="2">SELECT SupplierName, <br>
1427 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Beverages' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Beverages",
1428 <br>
1429 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Condiments' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Condiments",
1430 <br>
1431 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Confections' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Confections",
1432 <br>
1433 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Dairy Products' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Dairy
1434 Products", <br>
1435 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Grains/Cereals' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Grains/Cereals",
1436 <br>
1437 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Meat/Poultry' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Meat/Poultry",
1438 <br>
1439 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Produce' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Produce",
1440 <br>
1441 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Seafood' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Seafood",
1442 <br>
1443 SUM(1) as Total <br>
1444 FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID
1445 and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID <br>
1446 GROUP BY SupplierName</font></code></p>
1447 <p> You can also pivot on <i>numerical columns</i> and <i>generate totals</i>
1448 by using ranges. <font>This code was revised in ADODB 2.41
1449 and is not backward compatible.</font> The second example shows this:</p>
1450 <pre> $sql = PivotTableSQL(<br> $gDB, # adodb connection<br> 'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s', # tables<br> 'SupplierName', #<font> rows (multiple fields allowed)</font>
1451 array( # column ranges
1452 ' 0 ' =&gt; 'UnitsInStock &lt;= 0',
1453 "1 to 5" =&gt; '0 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 5',
1454 "6 to 10" =&gt; '5 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 10',
1455 "11 to 15" =&gt; '10 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 15',
1456 "16+" =&gt; '15 &lt; UnitsInStock'
1457 ),
1458 ' p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID', # joins/where
1459 'UnitsInStock', # sum this field
1460 'Sum ' # sum label prefix
1461 );
1462 </pre>
1463 <p>Which generates: </p>
1464 <p> <code> <font size="2">SELECT SupplierName, <br>
1465 SUM(CASE WHEN UnitsInStock &lt;= 0 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum
1466 0 ", <br>
1467 SUM(CASE WHEN 0 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 5 THEN UnitsInStock
1468 ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 1 to 5",<br>
1469 SUM(CASE WHEN 5 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 10 THEN UnitsInStock
1470 ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 6 to 10",<br>
1471 SUM(CASE WHEN 10 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 15 THEN UnitsInStock
1472 ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 11 to 15", <br>
1473 SUM(CASE WHEN 15 &lt; UnitsInStock THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum
1474 16+", <br>
1475 SUM(UnitsInStock) AS "Sum UnitsInStock", <br>
1476 SUM(1) as Total,<br>
1477 FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID
1478 and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID <br>
1479 GROUP BY SupplierName</font></code><font size="2"><br>
1480 </font> </p>
1481 <font><hr />
1482 <h1>Class Reference<a name="ref"></a></h1>
1483 <p>Function parameters with [ ] around them are optional.</p>
1484 </font>
1485 <h2>Global Variables</h2>
1486 <h3><font><a name="adodb_countrecs"></a></font>$ADODB_COUNTRECS</h3>
1487 <p>If the database driver API does not support counting the number of records
1488 returned in a SELECT statement, the function RecordCount() is emulated when
1489 the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS is set to true, which is the default.
1490 We emulate this by buffering the records, which can take up large amounts
1491 of memory for big recordsets. Set this variable to false for the best performance.
1492 This variable is checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively
1493 choose which recordsets to count.</p>
1494 <h3><font><a name="adodb_cache_dir"></a>$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</font></h3>
1495 <font>
1496 <p>If you are using recordset caching, this is the directory to save your recordsets
1497 in. Define this before you call any caching functions such as CacheExecute(
1498 ). We recommend setting <i>register_globals=off</i> in php.ini if you use this
1499 feature for security reasons.</p>
1500 <p>If you are using Unix and apache, you might need to set your cache directory
1501 permissions to something similar to the following:</p>
1502 </font>
1503 <p>chown -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache<br>
1504 chgrp -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache </p>
1505 <h3><font><a name="adodb_ansi_padding_off"></a>$ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF</font></h3>
1506 <p><font>Determines whether to right trim CHAR fields (and also VARCHAR for ibase/firebird).
1507 Set to true to trim. Default is false. Currently works for oci8po, ibase and firebird
1508 drivers. Added in ADOdb 4.01.
1509 </font></p><h3><font><a name="adodb_lang"></a>$ADODB_LANG</font></h3>
1510 <p><font>Determines the language used in MetaErrorMsg(). The default is 'en', for English.
1511 To find out what languages are supported, see the files
1512 in adodb/lang/adodb-$lang.inc.php, where $lang is the supported langauge.
1513 </font></p><h3><font><a name="adodb_fetch_mode"></a>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</font></h3>
1514 <p><font>This is a global variable that determines how arrays are retrieved by recordsets.
1515 The recordset saves this value on creation (eg. in Execute( ) or SelectLimit(
1516 )), and any subsequent changes to $ADODB_FETCH_MODE have no affect on existing
1517 recordsets, only on recordsets created in the future.</font></p>
1518 <p><font>The following constants are defined:</font></p>
1519
1520 <p><font>define('ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT',0);<br>
1521 define('ADODB_FETCH_NUM',1);<br>
1522 define('ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC',2);<br>
1523 define('ADODB_FETCH_BOTH',3); </font></p>
1524 <font>
1525 </font><p><font> An example:
1526 </font></p><pre><font> $ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;<br> $rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> $ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC;<br> $rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i>
1527 print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i>
1528 </font></pre>
1529 <p><font> As you can see in the above example, both recordsets store and use different
1530 fetch modes based on the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE setting when the recordset was
1531 created by Execute().</font></p>
1532 <p><font>If no fetch mode is predefined, the fetch mode defaults to ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT.
1533 The behaviour of this default mode varies from driver to driver, so do not
1534 rely on ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. For portability, we recommend sticking to ADODB_FETCH_NUM
1535 or ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Many drivers do not support ADODB_FETCH_BOTH.</font></p>
1536 <p><font><strong>SetFetchMode Function</strong></font></p>
1537 <p><font>If you have multiple connection objects, and want to have different fetch modes for each
1538 connection, then use <a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a>.
1539 Once this function is called for a connection object, that connection object
1540 will ignore the global variable $ADODB_FETCH_MODE and will use the internal
1541 fetchMode property exclusively.</font></p>
1542 <pre><font> $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);<br> $rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);<br> $rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i>
1543 print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i></font></pre>
1544 <p><font>To retrieve the previous fetch mode, you can use check the $db-&gt;fetchMode
1545 property, or use the return value of SetFetchMode( ).
1546 </font></p><p><font><strong><a name="adodb_assoc_case"></a>ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</strong></font></p>
1547 <p><font>You can control the associative fetch case for certain drivers which behave
1548 differently. For the sybase, oci8po, mssql, odbc and ibase drivers and all
1549 drivers derived from them, ADODB_ASSOC_CASE will by default generate recordsets
1550 where the field name keys are lower-cased. Use the constant ADODB_ASSOC_CASE
1551 to change the case of the keys. There are 3 possible values:</font></p>
1552 <p><font>0 = assoc lowercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['orderid']<br>
1553 1 = assoc uppercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['ORDERID']<br>
1554 2 = use native-case field names. $rs-&gt;fields['OrderID'] -- this is the
1555 default since ADOdb 2.90</font></p>
1556 <p><font>To use it, declare it before you incldue adodb.inc.php.</font></p>
1557 <p><font>define('ADODB_ASSOC_CASE', 2); # use native-case for ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC<br>
1558 include('adodb.inc.php'); </font></p>
1559 <h3><font><a name="force_type"></a>$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</font></h3>
1560 <p><font>See the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">GetUpdateSQL tutorial</a>.
1561 </font></p><hr />
1562 <h2><font>ADOConnection<a name="adoconnection"></a></font></h2>
1563 <p><font>Object that performs the connection to the database, executes SQL statements
1564 and has a set of utility functions for standardising the format of SQL statements
1565 for issues such as concatenation and date formats.</font></p>
1566 <h3><font>ADOConnection Fields</font></h3>
1567 <p><font><b>databaseType</b>: Name of the database system we are connecting to. Eg.
1568 <b>odbc</b> or <b>mssql</b> or <b>mysql</b>.</font></p>
1569 <p><font><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database.
1570 Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</font></p>
1571 <p><font><b>host: </b>Name of server or data source name (DSN) to connect to.</font></p>
1572 <p><font><b>database</b>: Name of the database or to connect to. If ado is used, it
1573 will hold the ado data provider.</font></p>
1574 <p><font><b>user</b>: Login id to connect to database. Password is not saved for security
1575 reasons.</font></p>
1576 <p><font><b>raiseErrorFn</b>: Allows you to define an error handling function. See adodb-errorhandler.inc.php
1577 for an example.</font></p>
1578 <p><font><b>debug</b>: Set to <i>true</i> to make debug statements to appear.</font></p>
1579 <p><font><b>concat_operator</b>: Set to '+' or '||' normally. The operator used to concatenate
1580 strings in SQL. Used by the <b><a href="#concat">Concat</a></b> function.</font></p>
1581 <p><font><b>fmtDate</b>: The format used by the <b><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a></b>
1582 function to send dates to the database. is '#Y-m-d#' for Microsoft Access,
1583 and ''Y-m-d'' for MySQL.</font></p>
1584 <p><font><b>fmtTimeStamp: </b>The format used by the <b><a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a></b>
1585 function to send timestamps to the database. </font></p>
1586 <p><font><b>true</b>: The value used to represent true.Eg. '.T.'. for Foxpro, '1' for
1587 Microsoft SQL.</font></p>
1588 <p><font><b>false: </b> The value used to represent false. Eg. '.F.'. for Foxpro, '0'
1589 for Microsoft SQL.</font></p>
1590 <p><font><b>replaceQuote</b>: The string used to escape quotes. Eg. double single-quotes
1591 for Microsoft SQL, and backslash-quote for MySQL. Used by <a href="#qstr">qstr</a>.</font></p>
1592 <p><font><b>autoCommit</b>: indicates whether automatic commit is enabled. Default is
1593 true.</font></p>
1594 <p><font><b>charSet</b>: set the default charset to use. Currently only interbase/firebird supports
1595 this.</font></p>
1596 <p><font><b>dialect</b>: set the default sql dialect to use. Currently only interbase/firebird
1597 supports this.</font></p>
1598 <p><font><b>role</b>: set the role. Currently only interbase/firebird
1599 supports this.</font></p>
1600 <p><font><b>metaTablesSQL</b>: SQL statement to return a list of available tables. Eg.
1601 <i>SHOW TABLES</i> in MySQL.</font></p>
1602 <p><font><b>genID</b>: The latest id generated by GenID() if supported by the database.</font></p>
1603 <p><font><b>cacheSecs</b>: The number of seconds to cache recordsets if CacheExecute()
1604 or CacheSelectLimit() omit the $secs2cache parameter. Defaults to 60 minutes.</font></p>
1605 <p><font><b>sysDate</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to call
1606 to get the current date. Useful for inserts and updates.</font></p>
1607 <p><font><b>sysTimeStamp</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to
1608 call to get the current timestamp/datetime value.</font></p>
1609 <p><font><b>leftOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known.
1610 Otherwise set to false.</font></p>
1611 <p><font><b>rightOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known.
1612 Otherwise set to false.</font></p>
1613 <p><font><b>ansiOuter</b>: Boolean that if true indicates that ANSI style outer joins
1614 are permitted. Eg. <i>select * from table1 left join table2 on p1=p2.</i></font></p>
1615 <p><font><b>connectSID</b>: Boolean that indicates whether to treat the $database parameter
1616 in connects as the SID for the oci8 driver. Defaults to false. Useful for
1617 Oracle 8.0.5 and earlier.</font></p>
1618 <p><font><b>autoRollback</b>: Persistent connections are auto-rollbacked in PConnect(
1619 ) if this is set to true. Default is false.</font></p>
1620 <hr />
1621 <h3><font>ADOConnection Main Functions</font></h3>
1622 <p><font><b>ADOConnection( )</b></font></p>
1623 <p><font>Constructor function. Do not call this directly. Use ADONewConnection( ) instead.</font></p>
1624 <p><font><b>Connect<a name="connect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></font></p>
1625 <p><font>Non-persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid
1626 $<b>user </b>and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple
1627 databases, connect to database $<b>database</b>. </font></p>
1628 <p><font>Returns true/false depending on connection success. Since 4.23, null is returned if the extension is not loaded.</font></p>
1629 <p><font>ADO Note: If you are using a Microsoft ADO and not OLEDB, you can set the $database
1630 parameter to the OLEDB data provider you are using.</font></p>
1631 <p><font>PostgreSQL: An alternative way of connecting to the database is to pass the
1632 standard PostgreSQL connection string in the first parameter $host, and the
1633 other parameters will be ignored.</font></p>
1634 <p><font>For Oracle and Oci8, there are two ways to connect. First is to use the TNS
1635 name defined in your local tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES). Place the
1636 name in the $database field, and set the $host field to false. Alternatively,
1637 set $host to the server, and $database to the database SID, this bypassed
1638 tnsnames.ora.
1639 </font></p><p><font>Examples:
1640 </font></p><pre><font> # $oraname in tnsnames.ora/ONAMES/HOSTNAMES<br> $conn-&gt;Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname); <br> $conn-&gt;Connect('server:1521', 'scott', 'tiger', 'ServiceName'); # bypass tnsnames.ora</font></pre>
1641 <p><font>There are many examples of connecting to a database.
1642 See <a href="#connect_ex">Connection Examples</a> for many examples.
1643
1644 </font></p><p><font><b>PConnect<a name="pconnect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></font></p>
1645 <p><font>Persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid $<b>user</b>
1646 and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple databases,
1647 connect to database $<b>database</b>.</font></p>
1648 <p><font>We now perform a rollback on persistent connection for selected databases since
1649 2.21, as advised in the PHP manual. See change log or source code for which
1650 databases are affected.
1651 </font></p><p><font>Returns true/false depending on connection. Since 4.23, 0 is returned if the extension is not loaded.
1652 See Connect( ) above for more info.</font></p>
1653 <p><font>Since ADOdb 2.21, we also support autoRollback. If you set:</font></p>
1654
1655 <pre> $conn = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');<br> $conn-&gt;autoRollback = true; # default is false<br> $conn-&gt;PConnect(...); # rollback here</pre>
1656 <p> Then when doing a persistent connection with PConnect( ), ADOdb will
1657 perform a rollback first. This is because it is documented that PHP is
1658 not guaranteed to rollback existing failed transactions when
1659 persistent connections are used. This is implemented in Oracle,
1660 MySQL, PgSQL, MSSQL, ODBC currently.
1661 </p><p>Since ADOdb 3.11, you can force non-persistent
1662 connections even if PConnect is called by defining the constant
1663 ADODB_NEVER_PERSIST before you call PConnect.
1664 </p><p>
1665 Since 4.23, null is returned if the extension is not loaded.
1666 </p><p><b>NConnect<a name="nconnect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>
1667 <p>Always force a new connection. In contrast, PHP sometimes reuses connections
1668 when you use Connect() or PConnect(). Currently works only on mysql (PHP 4.3.0
1669 or later), postgresql and oci8-derived drivers. For other drivers, NConnect() works like
1670 Connect().</p>
1671 <p><font><b>IsConnected( )<a name="isconnected"></a></b></font></p>
1672 <p>
1673 <font>Returns true if connected to database. Added in 4.53.
1674
1675 </font></p><p><font><b>Execute<a name="execute"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1676 <p><font>Execute SQL statement $<b>sql</b> and return derived class of ADORecordSet
1677 if successful. Note that a record set is always returned on success, even
1678 if we are executing an insert or update statement. You can also pass in $sql a statement prepared
1679 in <a href="#prepare">Prepare()</a>.</font></p>
1680 <p><font>Returns derived class of ADORecordSet. Eg. if connecting via mysql, then ADORecordSet_mysql
1681 would be returned. False is returned if there was an error in executing the
1682 sql.</font></p>
1683 <p><font>The $inputarr parameter can be used for binding variables to parameters. Below
1684 is an Oracle example:</font></p>
1685 <pre><font> $conn-&gt;Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", array('val'=&gt; $val));<br> </font></pre>
1686 <p><font>Another example, using ODBC,which uses the ? convention:</font></p>
1687 <pre><font> $conn-&gt;Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", array($val));<br></font></pre>
1688 <font><a name="binding"></a>
1689 <i>Binding variables</i></font><p>
1690 <font>Variable binding speeds the compilation and caching of SQL statements, leading
1691 to higher performance. Currently Oracle, Interbase and ODBC supports variable binding.
1692 Interbase/ODBC style ? binding is emulated in databases that do not support binding.
1693 Note that you do not have to quote strings if you use binding.
1694 </font></p><p><font> Variable binding in the odbc, interbase and oci8po drivers.
1695 </font></p><pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table where val=?', array('10'));<br></font></pre>
1696 <font>Variable binding in the oci8 driver:
1697 </font><pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select name from table where val=:key', <br> array('key' =&gt; 10));<br></font></pre>
1698 <font><a name="bulkbind"></a>
1699 <i>Bulk binding</i>
1700 </font><p><font>Since ADOdb 3.80, we support bulk binding in Execute(), in which you pass in a 2-dimensional array to
1701 be bound to an INSERT/UPDATE or DELETE statement.
1702 </font></p><pre><font>$arr = array(<br> array('Ahmad',32),<br> array('Zulkifli', 24),<br> array('Rosnah', 21)<br> );<br>$ok = $db-&gt;Execute('insert into table (name,age) values (?,?)',$arr);<br></font></pre>
1703 <p><font>This provides very high performance as the SQL statement is prepared first.
1704 The prepared statement is executed repeatedly for each array row until all rows are completed,
1705 or until the first error. Very useful for importing data.
1706
1707 </font></p><p><font><b>CacheExecute<a name="cacheexecute"></a>([$secs2cache,]$sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1708 <p><font>Similar to Execute, except that the recordset is cached for $secs2cache seconds
1709 in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory, and $inputarr only accepts 1-dimensional arrays.
1710 If CacheExecute() is called again with the same $sql, $inputarr,
1711 and also the same database, same userid, and the cached recordset
1712 has not expired, the cached recordset is returned.
1713 </font></p><pre><font> include('adodb.inc.php'); <br> include('tohtml.inc.php');<br> $ADODB_<b>CACHE_DIR</b> = '/usr/local/ADOdbcache';<br> $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); <br> $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br> $rs = $conn-&gt;<b>CacheExecute</b>(15, 'select * from table'); # cache 15 secs<br> rs2html($rs); /* recordset to html table */ <br></font></pre>
1714 <p><font> Alternatively, since ADOdb 1.80, the $secs2cache parameter is optional:</font></p>
1715 <pre><font> $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br> $conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours<br> $rs = $conn-&gt;CacheExecute('select * from table');<br></font></pre>
1716 <font>If $secs2cache is omitted, we use the value
1717 in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, or 1 hour). Use CacheExecute()
1718 only with SELECT statements.
1719 </font><p><font>Performance note: I have done some benchmarks and found that they vary so greatly
1720 that it's better to talk about when caching is of benefit. When your database
1721 server is <i>much slower </i>than your Web server or the database is <i>very
1722 overloaded </i>then ADOdb's caching is good because it reduces the load on
1723 your database server. If your database server is lightly loaded or much faster
1724 than your Web server, then caching could actually reduce performance. </font></p>
1725 <p><font><b>ExecuteCursor<a name="executecursor"></a>($sql,$cursorName='rs',$parameters=false)</b></font></p>
1726 <p><font>Execute an Oracle stored procedure, and returns an Oracle REF cursor variable as
1727 a regular ADOdb recordset. Does not work with any other database except oci8.
1728 Thanks to Robert Tuttle for the design.
1729 </font></p><pre><font> $db = ADONewConnection("oci8"); <br> $db-&gt;Connect("foo.com:1521", "uid", "pwd", "FOO"); <br> $rs = $db-&gt;ExecuteCursor("begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;", <br> 'cursorvar',<br> array('param1'=&gt;10)); <br> # $rs is now just like any other ADOdb recordset object<br> rs2html($rs);</font></pre>
1730 <p><font>ExecuteCursor() is a helper function that does the following internally:
1731 </font></p><pre><font> $stmt = $db-&gt;Prepare("begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;", true); <br> $db-&gt;Parameter($stmt, $cur, 'cursorvar', false, -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);<br> $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($stmt,$bindarr);<br></font></pre>
1732 <p><font>ExecuteCursor only accepts 1 out parameter. So if you have 2 out parameters, use:
1733 </font></p><pre><font> $vv = 'A%';<br> $stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP("BEGIN list_tabs(:crsr,:tt); END;");<br> $db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt, $cur, 'crsr', -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);<br> $db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt, $vv, 'tt', 32); # return varchar(32)<br> $arr = $db-&gt;GetArray($stmt);<br> print_r($arr);<br> echo " val = $vv"; ## outputs 'TEST'<br></font></pre>
1734 <font>for the following PL/SQL:
1735 </font><pre><font> TYPE TabType IS REF CURSOR RETURN TAB%ROWTYPE;<br><br> PROCEDURE list_tabs(tabcursor IN OUT TabType,tablenames IN OUT VARCHAR) IS<br> BEGIN<br> OPEN tabcursor FOR SELECT * FROM TAB WHERE tname LIKE tablenames;<br> tablenames := 'TEST';<br> END list_tabs;<br></font></pre>
1736 <p><font><b>SelectLimit<a name="selectlimit"></a>($sql,$numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1737 <p><font>Returns a recordset if successful. Returns false otherwise. Performs a select
1738 statement, simulating PostgreSQL's SELECT statement, LIMIT $numrows OFFSET
1739 $offset clause.</font></p>
1740 <p><font>In PostgreSQL, SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 will return the first 3 records
1741 only. The equivalent is <code>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',3)</code>.
1742 This functionality is simulated for databases that do not possess this feature.</font></p>
1743 <p><font>And SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 OFFSET 2 will return records 3, 4 and 5 (eg.
1744 after record 2, return 3 rows). The equivalent in ADOdb is <code>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT
1745 * FROM TABLE',3,2)</code>.</font></p>
1746 <p><font>Note that this is the <i>opposite</i> of MySQL's LIMIT clause. You can also
1747 set <code>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',-1,10)</code> to
1748 get rows 11 to the last row.</font></p>
1749 <p><font>The last parameter $inputarr is for databases that support variable binding
1750 such as Oracle oci8. This substantially reduces SQL compilation overhead.
1751 Below is an Oracle example:</font></p>
1752 <pre><font> $conn-&gt;SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", 100,-1,array('val'=&gt; $val));<br> </font></pre>
1753 <p><font>The oci8po driver (oracle portable driver) uses the more standard bind variable
1754 of ?:
1755 </font></p><pre><font> $conn-&gt;SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", 100,-1,array('val'=&gt; $val));<br></font></pre>
1756 <p><font>
1757 </font></p><p><font>Ron Wilson reports that SelectLimit does not work with UNIONs.
1758 </font></p><p><font><b>CacheSelectLimit<a name="cacheselectlimit"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql, $numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1759 <p><font>Similar to SelectLimit, except that the recordset returned is cached for $secs2cache
1760 seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory. </font></p>
1761 <p><font>Since 1.80, $secs2cache has been optional, and you can define the caching time
1762 in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs.</font></p>
1763
1764 <pre><font> $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br> $conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours<br> $rs = $conn-&gt;CacheSelectLimit('select * from table',10);</font></pre>
1765 <font>
1766 </font><p><font><b>CacheFlush<a name="cacheflush"></a>($sql=false,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1767 <p><font>Flush (delete) any cached recordsets for the SQL statement $sql in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.
1768 </font></p><p><font>If no parameter is passed in, then all adodb_*.cache files are deleted.
1769 </font></p><p><font> If you want to flush all cached recordsets manually, execute the following
1770 PHP code (works only under Unix): <br>
1771 <code> &nbsp; system("rm -f `find ".$ADODB_CACHE_DIR." -name
1772 adodb_*.cache`");</code></font></p>
1773 <p><font>For general cleanup of all expired files, you should use <a href="http://www.superscripts.com/tutorial/crontab.html">crontab</a>
1774 on Unix, or at.exe on Windows, and a shell script similar to the following:<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><br>
1775 #------------------------------------------------------ <br>
1776 # This particular example deletes files in the TMPPATH <br>
1777 # directory with the string ".cache" in their name that <br>
1778 # are more than 7 days old. <br>
1779 #------------------------------------------------------ <br>
1780 AGED=7 <br>
1781 find ${TMPPATH} -mtime +$AGED | grep "\.cache" | xargs rm -f <br>
1782 </font> </font></p>
1783 <p><font><b>MetaError<a name="metaerror"></a>($errno=false)</b></font></p>
1784 <p><font>Returns a virtualized error number, based on PEAR DB's error number system. You might
1785 need to include adodb-error.inc.php before you call this function. The parameter $errno
1786 is the native error number you want to convert. If you do not pass any parameter, MetaError
1787 will call ErrorNo() for you and convert it. If the error number cannot be virtualized, MetaError
1788 will return -1 (DB_ERROR).</font></p>
1789
1790 <p><font><b>MetaErrorMsg<a name="metaerrormsg"></a>($errno)</b></font></p>
1791 <p><font>Pass the error number returned by MetaError() for the equivalent textual error message.</font></p>
1792 <p><font><b>ErrorMsg<a name="errormsg"></a>()</b></font></p>
1793 <p><font>Returns the last status or error message. The error message is reset after every
1794 call to Execute().
1795 </font></p><p>
1796 <font>This can return a string even if
1797 no error occurs. In general you do not need to call this function unless an
1798 ADOdb function returns false on an error. </font></p>
1799 <p><font>Note: If <b>debug</b> is enabled, the SQL error message is always displayed
1800 when the <b>Execute</b> function is called.</font></p>
1801 <p><font><b>ErrorNo<a name="errorno"></a>()</b></font></p>
1802 <p><font>Returns the last error number. The error number is reset after every call to Execute().
1803 If 0 is returned, no error occurred.
1804 </font></p><p>
1805 <font>Note that old versions of PHP (pre 4.0.6) do
1806 not support error number for ODBC. In general you do not need to call this
1807 function unless an ADOdb function returns false on an error.</font></p>
1808
1809 <p><font><b>SetFetchMode<a name="setfetchmode"></a>($mode)</b></font></p>
1810 <p><font>Sets the current fetch mode for the connection and stores
1811 it in $db-&gt;fetchMode. Legal modes are ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC and ADODB_FETCH_NUM.
1812 For more info, see <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>.</font></p>
1813 <p><font>Returns the previous fetch mode, which could be false
1814 if SetFetchMode( ) has not been called before.</font></p>
1815 <font>
1816 </font><p><font><b>CreateSequence<a name="createseq"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></font></p>
1817 <p><font>Create a sequence. The next time GenID( ) is called, the value returned will
1818 be $startID. Added in 2.60.
1819 </font></p><p><font><b>DropSequence<a name="dropseq"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq')</b></font></p>
1820 <p><font>Delete a sequence. Added in 2.60.
1821 </font></p><p><font><b>GenID<a name="genid"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></font></p>
1822 <p><font>Generate a sequence number . Works for interbase,
1823 mysql, postgresql, oci8, oci8po, mssql, ODBC based (access,vfp,db2,etc) drivers
1824 currently. Uses $seqName as the name of the sequence. GenID() will automatically
1825 create the sequence for you if it does not exist (provided the userid has
1826 permission to do so). Otherwise you will have to create the sequence yourself.
1827 </font></p><p><font> If your database driver emulates sequences, the name of the table is the sequence
1828 name. The table has one column, "id" which should be of type integer, or if
1829 you need something larger - numeric(16).
1830 </font></p><p><font> For ODBC and databases that do not support sequences natively (eg mssql, mysql),
1831 we create a table for each sequence. If the sequence has not been defined
1832 earlier, it is created with the starting value set in $startID.</font></p>
1833 <p><font>Note that the mssql driver's GenID() before 1.90 used to generate 16 byte GUID's.</font></p>
1834 <p><font><b>UpdateBlob<a name="updateblob"></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></font></p>
1835 <font>Allows you to store a blob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where.
1836 </font><p><font> Usage:
1837 </font></p><p><font>
1838 </font></p><pre><font> # for oracle<br> $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, empty_blob())');<br> $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');<br> <br> # non oracle databases<br> $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, null)');<br> $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');<br></font></pre>
1839 <p><font> Returns true if succesful, false otherwise. Supported by MySQL, PostgreSQL,
1840 Oci8, Oci8po and Interbase drivers. Other drivers might work, depending on
1841 the state of development.</font></p>
1842 <p><font>Note that when an Interbase blob is retrieved using SELECT, it still needs
1843 to be decoded using $connection-&gt;DecodeBlob($blob); to derive the original
1844 value in versions of PHP before 4.1.0.
1845 </font></p><p><font>For PostgreSQL, you can store your blob using blob oid's or as a bytea field.
1846 You can use bytea fields but not blob oid's currently with UpdateBlob( ).
1847 Conversely UpdateBlobFile( ) supports oid's, but not bytea data.<br>
1848 <br>
1849 If you do not pass in an oid, then UpdateBlob() assumes that you are storing
1850 in bytea fields.
1851 <p>If you do not have any blob fields, you can improve you can improve general SQL query performance by disabling blob handling with $connection->disableBlobs = true.
1852 </font></p><p><font><b>UpdateClob<a name="updateclob"></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></font></p>
1853 <font>Allows you to store a clob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where.
1854 Similar to UpdateBlob (see above), but for Character Large OBjects.
1855 </font><p><font> Usage:
1856 </font></p><pre><font> # for oracle<br> $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, empty_clob())');<br> $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');<br> <br> # non oracle databases<br> $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, null)');<br> $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');<br></font></pre>
1857 <p><font><b>UpdateBlobFile<a name="updateblobfile"></a>($table,$column,$path,$where,$blobtype='BLOB')</b></font></p>
1858 <p><font>Similar to UpdateBlob, except that we pass in a file path to where the blob
1859 resides.
1860 </font></p><p><font>For PostgreSQL, if you are using blob oid's, use this interface. This interface
1861 does not support bytea fields.
1862 </font></p><p><font>Returns true if successful, false otherwise.
1863 </font></p><p><font><b>BlobEncode<a name="blobencode" id="blobencode"></a>($blob)</b>
1864 </font></p><p><font>Some databases require blob's to be encoded manually before upload. Note if
1865 you use UpdateBlob( ) or UpdateBlobFile( ) the conversion is done automatically
1866 for you and you do not have to call this function. For PostgreSQL, currently,
1867 BlobEncode() can only be used for bytea fields.
1868 </font></p><p><font>Returns the encoded blob value.
1869 </font></p><p><font>Note that there is a connection property called <em>blobEncodeType</em> which
1870 has 3 legal values:
1871 </font></p><p><font>false - no need to perform encoding or decoding.<br>
1872 'I' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a numeric value
1873 (no need to quote).<br>
1874 'C' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a character value
1875 (requires quoting).
1876 </font></p><p><font>This is purely for documentation purposes, so that programs that accept multiple
1877 database drivers know what is the right thing to do when processing blobs.
1878 </font></p><p><font><strong>BlobDecode<a name="blobdecode"></a>($blob, $maxblobsize = false)</strong>
1879 </font></p><p><font>Some databases require blob's to be decoded manually after doing a select statement.
1880 If the database does not require decoding, then this function will return
1881 the blob unchanged. Currently BlobDecode is only required for one database,
1882 PostgreSQL, and only if you are using blob oid's (if you are using bytea fields,
1883 we auto-decode for you).</font> The default maxblobsize is set in $connection-&gt;maxblobsize, which
1884 is set to 256K in adodb 4.54. </p><p>
1885 In ADOdb 4.54 and later, the blob is the return value. In earlier versions, the blob data is sent to stdout.</p><font>
1886 </font><p></p><pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute("select bloboid from postgres_table where id=$key");<br>$blob = $db-&gt;BlobDecode( reset($rs-&gt;fields) );</font></pre>
1887 <p><font><b>Replace<a name="replace"></a>($table, $arrFields, $keyCols,$autoQuote=false)</b></font></p>
1888 <p><font>Try to update a record, and if the record is not found, an insert statement
1889 is generated and executed. Returns 0 on failure, 1 if update statement worked,
1890 2 if no record was found and the insert was executed successfully. This differs
1891 from MySQL's replace which deletes the record and inserts a new record. This
1892 also means you cannot update the primary key. The only exception to this is
1893 Interbase and its derivitives, which uses delete and insert because of some
1894 Interbase API limitations.
1895 </font></p><p><font>The parameters are $table which is the table name, the $arrFields which is an
1896 associative array where the keys are the field names, and $keyCols is the name
1897 of the primary key, or an array of field names if it is a compound key. If
1898 $autoQuote is set to true, then Replace() will quote all values that are non-numeric;
1899 auto-quoting will not quote nulls. Note that auto-quoting will not work if
1900 you use SQL functions or operators.
1901 </font></p><p><font>Examples:
1902 </font></p><pre><font># single field primary key<br>$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable', <br> array('id'=&gt;1000,'firstname'=&gt;'Harun','lastname'=&gt;'Al-Rashid'),<br> 'id',$autoquote = true); <br># generates UPDATE atable SET firstname='Harun',lastname='Al-Rashid' WHERE id=1000<br># or INSERT INTO atable (id,firstname,lastname) VALUES (1000,'Harun','Al-Rashid')<br><br># compound key<br>$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable2', <br> array('firstname'=&gt;'Harun','lastname'=&gt;'Al-Rashid', 'age' =&gt; 33, 'birthday' =&gt; 'null'),<br> array('lastname','firstname'),<br> $autoquote = true);<br><br># no auto-quoting<br>$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable2', <br> array('firstname'=&gt;"'Harun'",'lastname'=&gt;"'Al-Rashid'", 'age' =&gt; 'null'),<br> array('lastname','firstname')); <br></font></pre>
1903 <p><font><b>AutoExecute<a name="autoexecute"></a>($table, $arrFields, $mode, $where=false, $forceUpdate=true,$magicq=false)</b></font></p>
1904 <p>Since ADOdb 4.56, you can automatically generate and execute INSERTs and UPDATEs on a given table with this
1905 function, which is a wrapper for GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL().
1906 <p>AutoExecute() inserts or updates $table given an array of $arrFields, where the keys are the field names and the array values are the
1907 field values to store. Note that there is some overhead because the table is first queried to extract key information
1908 before the SQL is generated. We generate an INSERT or UPDATE based on $mode (see below).
1909 <p>
1910 Legal values for $mode are
1911 <ul>
1912 <li>'INSERT' or 1 or DB_AUTOQUERY_INSERT
1913 <li>'UPDATE' or 2 or DB_AUTOQUERY_UPDATE
1914 </ul>
1915 <p>You have to define the constants DB_AUTOQUERY_UPDATE and DB_AUTOQUERY_INSERT yourself or include adodb-pear.inc.php.
1916 <p>The $where clause is required if $mode == 'UPDATE'. If $forceUpdate=false then we will query the
1917 database first and check if the field value returned by the query matches the current field value; only if they differ do we update that field.
1918 <p>Returns true on success, false on error.
1919 <p>An example of its use is:
1920 <pre>
1921 $record["firstName"] = "Carol";
1922 $record["lasTname"] = "Smith";
1923 $conn->AutoExecute($table,$record,'INSERT');
1924 # executes <i>"INSERT INTO $table (firstName,lasTname) values ('Carol',Smith')"</i>;
1925
1926 $record["firstName"] = "Carol";
1927 $record["lasTname"] = "Jones";
1928 $conn->AutoExecute($table,$record,'UPDATE', "lastname like 'Sm%'");
1929 # executes <i>"UPDATE $table SET firstName='Carol',lasTname='Jones' WHERE lastname like 'Sm%'"</i>;
1930 </pre>
1931 <p>Note: One of the strengths of ADOdb's AutoExecute() is that only valid field names for $table are updated. If $arrFields
1932 contains keys that are invalid field names for $table, they are ignored. There is some overhead in doing this as we have to
1933 query the database to get the field names, but given that you are not directly coding the SQL yourself, you probably aren't interested in
1934 speed at all, but convenience.
1935 <p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.
1936 <p><font><b>GetUpdateSQL<a name="getupdatesql"></a>(&amp;$rs, $arrFields, $forceUpdate=false,$magicq=false, $force=null)</b></font></p>
1937 <p><font>Generate SQL to update a table given a recordset $rs, and the modified fields
1938 of the array $arrFields (which must be an associative array holding the column
1939 names and the new values) are compared with the current recordset. If $forceUpdate
1940 is true, then we also generate the SQL even if $arrFields is identical to
1941 $rs-&gt;fields. Requires the recordset to be associative. $magicq is used
1942 to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled (see qstr()). The field names in the array
1943 are case-insensitive.</font></p>
1944 <font> </font><p><font>Since 4.52, we allow you to pass the $force type parameter, and this overrides the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a>
1945 global variable.
1946 <p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.
1947 </font></p><p><font><b>GetInsertSQL<a name="getinsertsql"></a>(&amp;$rs, $arrFields,$magicq=false,$force_type=false)</b></font></p>
1948 <p><font>Generate SQL to insert into a table given a recordset $rs. Requires the query
1949 to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled
1950 (for qstr()). The field names in the array are case-insensitive.</font></p>
1951 <p>
1952 <font> Since 2.42, you can pass a table name instead of a recordset into
1953 GetInsertSQL (in $rs), and it will generate an insert statement for that table.
1954 </font></p><p><font>Since 4.52, we allow you to pass the $force_type parameter, and this overrides the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a>
1955 global variable.
1956 <p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.
1957 </font></p><p><font><b>PageExecute<a name="pageexecute"></a>($sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b>
1958 </font></p><p><font>Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See <a href="#ex8">Example
1959 8</a>.</font></p>
1960
1961 <p><font><b>CachePageExecute<a name="cachepageexecute"></a>($secs2cache,
1962 $sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b> </font></p>
1963 <p><font>Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See
1964 <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>. Caching version of PageExecute.</font></p>
1965 <font>
1966 </font><p></p>
1967 <p><font><b>Close<a name="close"></a>( )</b></font></p>
1968 <p><font>Close the database connection. PHP4 proudly states that we no longer have to
1969 clean up at the end of the connection because the reference counting mechanism
1970 of PHP4 will automatically clean up for us.</font></p>
1971 <font> </font><p><font><b>StartTrans<a name="starttrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
1972 <font> </font><p><font>Start a monitored transaction. As SQL statements are executed, ADOdb will monitor
1973 for SQL errors, and if any are detected, when CompleteTrans() is called, we auto-rollback.
1974 </font></p><p>
1975 <font> </font></p><p><font> To understand why StartTrans() is superior to BeginTrans(),
1976 let us examine a few ways of using BeginTrans().
1977 The following is the wrong way to use transactions:
1978 </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;CommitTrans();<br></font></pre>
1979 <p><font>because you perform no error checking. It is possible to update table1 and
1980 for the update on table2 to fail. Here is a better way:
1981 </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>$ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>if ($ok) $ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>if ($ok) $DB-&gt;CommitTrans();<br>else $DB-&gt;RollbackTrans();<br></font></pre>
1982 <p><font>Another way is (since ADOdb 2.0):
1983 </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>$ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>if ($ok) $ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;CommitTrans($ok);<br></font></pre>
1984 <p><font> Now it is a headache monitoring $ok all over the place. StartTrans() is an
1985 improvement because it monitors all SQL errors for you. This is particularly
1986 useful if you are calling black-box functions in which SQL queries might be executed.
1987 Also all BeginTrans, CommitTrans and RollbackTrans calls inside a StartTrans block
1988 will be disabled, so even if the black box function does a commit, it will be ignored.
1989 </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;StartTrans();<br>CallBlackBox();<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;CompleteTrans();<br></font></pre>
1990 <p><font>Note that a StartTrans blocks are nestable, the inner blocks are ignored.
1991 </font></p><p><font><b>CompleteTrans<a name="completetrans"></a>($autoComplete=true)</b></font></p>
1992 <font> </font><p><font>Complete a transaction called with StartTrans(). This function monitors
1993 for SQL errors, and will commit if no errors have occured, otherwise it will rollback.
1994 Returns true on commit, false on rollback. If the parameter $autoComplete is true
1995 monitor sql errors and commit and rollback as appropriate. Set $autoComplete to false
1996 to force rollback even if no SQL error detected.
1997 </font></p><p><font><b>FailTrans<a name="failtrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
1998 <font> </font><p><font>Fail a transaction started with StartTrans(). The rollback will only occur when
1999 CompleteTrans() is called.
2000 </font></p><p><font><b>HasFailedTrans<a name="hasfailedtrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2001 <font> </font><p><font>Check whether smart transaction has failed,
2002 eg. returns true if there was an error in SQL execution or FailTrans() was called.
2003 If not within smart transaction, returns false.
2004 </font></p><p><font><b>BeginTrans<a name="begintrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2005 <p><font>Begin a transaction. Turns off autoCommit. Returns true if successful. Some
2006 databases will always return false if transaction support is not available.
2007 Any open transactions will be rolled back when the connection is closed. Among the
2008 databases that support transactions are Oracle, PostgreSQL, Interbase, MSSQL, certain
2009 versions of MySQL, DB2, Informix, Sybase, etc.</font></p>
2010 <font> </font><p><font>Note that <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans()</a> and CompleteTrans() is a superior method of
2011 handling transactions, available since ADOdb 3.40. For a explanation, see the <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans()</a> documentation.
2012
2013 </font></p><p><font>You can also use the ADOdb <a href="#errorhandling">error handler</a> to die
2014 and rollback your transactions for you transparently. Some buggy database extensions
2015 are known to commit all outstanding tranasactions, so you might want to explicitly
2016 do a $DB-&gt;RollbackTrans() in your error handler for safety.
2017 </font></p><h4><font>Detecting Transactions</font></h4>
2018 <font> </font><p><font>Since ADOdb 2.50, you are able to detect when you are inside a transaction. Check
2019 that $connection-&gt;transCnt &gt; 0. This variable is incremented whenever BeginTrans() is called,
2020 and decremented whenever RollbackTrans() or CommitTrans() is called.
2021 </font></p><p><font><b>CommitTrans<a name="committrans"></a>($ok=true)</b></font></p>
2022 <p><font>End a transaction successfully. Returns true if successful. If the database
2023 does not support transactions, will return true also as data is always committed.
2024 </font></p>
2025 <p><font>If you pass the parameter $ok=false, the data is rolled back. See example in
2026 BeginTrans().</font></p>
2027 <p><font><b>RollbackTrans<a name="rollbacktrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2028 <p><font>End a transaction, rollback all changes. Returns true if successful. If the
2029 database does not support transactions, will return false as data is never rollbacked.
2030 </font></p>
2031
2032 <p><font><b>SetTransactionMode<a name="SetTransactionMode"></a>($mode )</b></font></p>
2033 <p>SetTransactionMode allows you to pass in the transaction mode to use for all subsequent transactions.
2034 Note: if you have persistent connections and using mssql or mysql, you might have to explicitly reset your transaction mode at the beginning of each page request.
2035 This is only supported in postgresql, mssql, mysql with InnoDB and oci8 currently. For example:
2036 <pre>
2037 $db->SetTransactionMode("SERIALIZABLE");
2038 $db->BeginTrans();
2039 $db->Execute(...); $db->Execute(...);
2040 $db->CommiTrans();
2041
2042 $db->SetTransactionMode(""); // restore to default
2043 $db->StartTrans();
2044 $db->Execute(...); $db->Execute(...);
2045 $db->CompleteTrans();
2046 </pre>
2047
2048 <p>Supported values to pass in:
2049 <ul>
2050 <li>READ UNCOMMITTED (allows dirty reads, but fastest)
2051 <li>READ COMMITTED (default postgres, mssql and oci8)
2052 <li>REPEATABLE READ (default mysql)
2053 <li>SERIALIZABLE (slowest and most restrictive)
2054 </ul>
2055 <p>You can also pass in database specific values such as 'SNAPSHOT' for mssql or 'READ ONLY' for oci8/postgres.
2056 <p>See transaction levels for <a href=http://www.postgresql.org/docs/8.1/interactive/sql-set-transaction.html>PostgreSQL</a>,
2057 <a href=http://www.stanford.edu/dept/itss/docs/oracle/10g/server.101/b10759/statements_10005.htm>Oracle</a>,
2058 <a href=http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/set-transaction.html>MySQL</a>, and
2059 <a href=http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-US/ms173763.aspx>MS SQL Server</a>.
2060 <p><font><b>GetAssoc<a name="getassoc1"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false,$force_array=false,$first2cols=false)</b></font></p>
2061 <p><font>Returns an associative array for the given query $sql with optional bind parameters
2062 in $inputarr. If the number of columns returned is greater to two, a 2-dimensional
2063 array is returned, with the first column of the recordset becomes the keys
2064 to the rest of the rows. If the columns is equal to two, a 1-dimensional array
2065 is created, where the the keys directly map to the values (unless $force_array
2066 is set to true, when an array is created for each value).
2067 </font></p><p><font> Examples:<a name="getassocex"></a></font></p>
2068
2069 <p><font>We have the following data in a recordset:</font></p>
2070 <p><font>row1: Apple, Fruit, Edible<br>
2071 row2: Cactus, Plant, Inedible<br>
2072 row3: Rose, Flower, Edible</font></p>
2073 <p><font>GetAssoc will generate the following 2-dimensional associative
2074 array:</font></p>
2075 <p><font>Apple =&gt; array[Fruit, Edible]<br>
2076 Cactus =&gt; array[Plant, Inedible]<br>
2077 Rose =&gt; array[Flower,Edible]</font></p>
2078 <p><font>If the dataset is:</font></p>
2079 <p><font>row1: Apple, Fruit<br>
2080 row2: Cactus, Plant<br>
2081 row3: Rose, Flower </font></p>
2082 <p><font>GetAssoc will generate the following 1-dimensional associative
2083 array (with $force_array==false):</font></p>
2084 <p><font>Apple =&gt; Fruit</font><br>
2085 Cactus=&gt;Plant<br>
2086 Rose=&gt;Flower </p>
2087 <p><font>The function returns:</font></p>
2088 <p><font>The associative array, or false if an error occurs.</font></p>
2089 <font>
2090 <p><b>CacheGetAssoc<a name="cachegetassoc"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false,$force_array=false,$first2cols=false)</b></p>
2091 </font>
2092 <p><font>Caching version of <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a> function above.
2093 </font></p><p><font><b>GetOne<a name="getone"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
2094 <p><font>Executes the SQL and returns the first field of the first row. The recordset
2095 and remaining rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occur, false
2096 is returned.</font></p>
2097 <p><font><b>GetRow<a name="getrow"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
2098 <p><font>Executes the SQL and returns the first row as an array. The recordset and remaining
2099 rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is returned.</font></p>
2100 <p><font><b>GetAll<a name="getall"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
2101
2102 <p>Executes the SQL and returns the all the rows as a 2-dimensional
2103 array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs,
2104 false is returned. <i>GetArray</i> is a synonym for <i>GetAll</i>.</p>
2105 <p><b>GetCol<a name="getcol"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></p>
2106
2107 <p><font>Executes the SQL and returns all elements of the first column as a
2108 1-dimensional array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs,
2109 false is returned.</font></p>
2110 <p><font><b>CacheGetOne<a name="cachegetone"></a>([$secs2cache,]
2111 $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetRow<a name="cachegetrow"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetAll<a name="cachegetall"></a>([$secs2cache,]
2112 $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetCol<a name="cachegetcol"></a>([$secs2cache,]
2113 $sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></font></p>
2114 <font>
2115 </font><p><font>Similar to above Get* functions, except that the recordset is serialized and
2116 cached in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory for $secs2cache seconds. Good for speeding
2117 up queries on rarely changing data. Note that the $secs2cache parameter is optional.
2118 If omitted, we use the value in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds,
2119 or 1 hour).</font></p>
2120 <p><font><b>Prepare<a name="prepare"></a>($sql )</b></font></p>
2121
2122 <p><font>Prepares (compiles) an SQL query for repeated execution. Bind parameters
2123 are denoted by ?, except for the oci8 driver, which uses the traditional Oracle :varname
2124 convention.
2125 </font></p>
2126 <p><font>Returns an array containing the original sql statement
2127 in the first array element; the remaining elements of the array are driver dependent.
2128 If there is an error, or we are emulating Prepare( ), we return the original
2129 $sql string. This is because all error-handling has been centralized in Execute(
2130 ).</font></p>
2131 <p><font>Prepare( ) cannot be used with functions that use SQL
2132 query rewriting techniques, e.g. PageExecute( ) and SelectLimit( ).</font></p>
2133 <p>Example:</p>
2134 <pre><font>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare('insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)');<br>for ($i=0; $i &lt; $max; $i++)<br></font> $DB-&gt;<font>Execute($stmt,array((string) rand(), $i));<br></font></pre>
2135 <font>
2136 </font><p><font>Also see InParameter(), OutParameter() and PrepareSP() below. Only supported internally by interbase,
2137 oci8 and selected ODBC-based drivers, otherwise it is emulated. There is no
2138 performance advantage to using Prepare() with emulation.
2139 </font></p><p><font> Important: Due to limitations or bugs in PHP, if you are getting errors when
2140 you using prepared queries, try setting $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false before preparing.
2141 This behaviour has been observed with ODBC.
2142 </font></p><p><font><b>IfNull<a name="ifnull"></a>($field, $nullReplacementValue)</b></font></p>
2143 <p><font>Portable IFNULL function (NVL in Oracle). Returns a string that represents
2144 the function that checks whether a $field is null for the given database, and
2145 if null, change the value returned to $nullReplacementValue. Eg.</font></p>
2146 <pre><font>$sql = <font color="#993300">'SELECT '</font>.$db-&gt;IfNull('name', <font color="#993300">"'- unknown -'"</font>).<font color="#993300"> ' FROM table'</font>;</font></pre>
2147
2148 <p><font><b>length<a name="length"></a></b></font></p>
2149 <p><font>This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have "length" and others "len"
2150 as the function to measure the length of a string. To use this property:
2151 </font></p><pre><font> $sql = <font color="#993300">"SELECT "</font>.$db-&gt;length.<font color="#993300">"(field) from table"</font>;<br> $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br></font></pre>
2152
2153 <p><font><b>random<a name="random"></a></b></font></p>
2154 <p><font>This is not a function, but a property. This is a string that holds the sql to
2155 generate a random number between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive.
2156
2157 </font></p><p><font><b>substr<a name="substr"></a></b></font></p>
2158 <p><font>This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have "substr" and others "substring"
2159 as the function to retrieve a sub-string. To use this property:
2160 </font></p><pre><font> $sql = <font color="#993300">"SELECT "</font>.$db-&gt;substr.<font color="#993300">"(field, $offset, $length) from table"</font>;<br> $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br></font></pre>
2161 <p><font>For all databases, the 1st parameter of <i>substr</i> is the field, the 2nd is the
2162 offset (1-based) to the beginning of the sub-string, and the 3rd is the length of the sub-string.
2163
2164
2165 </font></p><p><font><b>Param<a name="param"></a>($name)</b></font></p>
2166 <p><font>Generates a bind placeholder portably. For most databases, the bind placeholder
2167 is "?". However some databases use named bind parameters such as Oracle, eg
2168 ":somevar". This allows us to portably define an SQL statement with bind parameters:
2169 </font></p><pre><font>$sql = <font color="#993300">'insert into table (col1,col2) values ('</font>.$DB-&gt;Param('a').<font color="#993300">','</font>.$DB-&gt;Param('b').<font color="#993300">')'</font>;<br><font color="#006600"># generates 'insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)'<br># or 'insert into table (col1,col2) values (:a,:b)</font>'<br>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare($sql);<br>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt,array('one','two'));<br></font></pre>
2170 <font> </font>
2171 <p></p>
2172 <p><font><b>PrepareSP</b><b><a name="preparesp"></a></b><b>($sql,
2173 $cursor=false )</b></font></p>
2174 <p><font>When calling stored procedures in mssql and oci8 (oracle),
2175 and you might want to directly bind to parameters that return values, or
2176 for special LOB handling. PrepareSP() allows you to do so. </font></p>
2177 <p><font>Returns the same array or $sql string as Prepare( )
2178 above. If you do not need to bind to return values, you should use Prepare(
2179 ) instead.</font></p>
2180 <p><font>The 2nd parameter, $cursor is not used except with oci8.
2181 Setting it to true will force OCINewCursor to be called; this is to support
2182 output REF CURSORs. </font></p>
2183 <p><font>For examples of usage of PrepareSP( ), see InParameter(
2184 ) below. </font></p>
2185 <p><font>Note: in the mssql driver, preparing stored procedures
2186 requires a special function call, mssql_init( ), which is called by this
2187 function. PrepareSP( ) is available in all other drivers, and is emulated
2188 by calling Prepare( ). </font></p>
2189 <p><font><b> InParameter<a name="inparameter"></a>($stmt, $var,
2190 $name, $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></font></p>
2191 <font>Binds a PHP variable as input to a stored procedure variable.
2192 The parameter <i>$stmt</i> is the value returned by PrepareSP(), <i>$var</i> is
2193 the PHP variable you want to bind, $name is the name of the stored procedure
2194 variable. Optional is <i>$maxLen</i>, the maximum length of the data to bind,
2195 and $type which is database dependant. Consult <a href="http://php.net/mssql_bind">mssql_bind</a> and <a href="http://php.net/ocibindbyname">ocibindbyname</a> docs
2196 at php.net for more info on legal values for $type. </font>
2197 <p>
2198 <font>InParameter() is a wrapper function that calls Parameter()
2199 with $isOutput=false. The advantage of this function is that it is self-documenting,
2200 because the $isOutput parameter is no longer needed. Only for mssql and oci8
2201 currently. </font></p>
2202 <p><font>Here is an example using oci8: </font></p>
2203 <pre><font><font color="green"># For oracle, Prepare and PrepareSP are identical</font>
2204 $stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(
2205 <font color="#993300">"declare RETVAL integer; <br> begin<br> :RETVAL := </font><font color="#993300">SP_RUNSOMETHING</font><font color="#993300">(:myid,:group);<br> end;"</font>);<br>$db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$id,'myid');<br>$db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$group,'group',64);<br>$db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL');<br>$db-&gt;Execute($stmt);<br></font></pre>
2206 <p><font> The same example using mssql:</font></p>
2207 <font>
2208 </font><pre><font><font color="green"># @RETVAL = SP_RUNSOMETHING @myid,@group</font>
2209 $stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(<font color="#993333">'<font color="#993300">SP_RUNSOMETHING</font>'</font>); <br><font color="green"># note that the parameter name does not have @ in front!</font>
2210 $db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$id,'myid');
2211 $db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$group,'group',64);
2212 <font color="green"># return value in mssql - RETVAL is hard-coded name</font> <br>$db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL');<br>$db-&gt;Execute($stmt); </font></pre>
2213
2214 <p><font>Note that the only difference between the oci8 and mssql implementations is $sql.</font></p>
2215 <p>
2216 <font> If $type parameter is set to false, in mssql, $type will be dynamicly determined
2217 based on the type of the PHP variable passed <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">(string
2218 =&gt; SQLCHAR, boolean =&gt;SQLINT1, integer =&gt;SQLINT4 or float/double=&gt;SQLFLT8)</font>.
2219 </font></p><p><font>
2220 In oci8, $type can be set to OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File),
2221 OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). To
2222 pass in a null, use<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> $db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,
2223 $null=null, 'param')</font>.
2224 </font></p><p><font><b> OutParameter<a name="outparameter"></a>($stmt, $var, $name,
2225 $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></font></p>
2226 <font> Binds a PHP variable as output from a stored procedure variable. The parameter <i>$stmt</i>
2227 is the value returned by PrepareSP(), <i>$var</i> is the PHP variable you want to bind, <i>$name</i>
2228 is the name of the stored procedure variable. Optional is <i>$maxLen</i>, the maximum length of the
2229 data to bind, and <i>$type</i> which is database dependant.
2230 </font><p>
2231 <font> OutParameter() is a wrapper function that calls Parameter() with $isOutput=true.
2232 The advantage of this function is that it is self-documenting, because
2233 the $isOutput parameter is no longer needed. Only for mssql
2234 and oci8 currently.
2235 </font></p><p>
2236 <font>For an example, see <a href="#inparameter">InParameter</a>.
2237
2238 </font></p><p><font><b> Parameter<a name="parameter"></a>($stmt, $var, $name, $isOutput=false,
2239 $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></font></p>
2240 <p><font>Note: This function is deprecated, because of the new InParameter() and OutParameter() functions.
2241 These are superior because they are self-documenting, unlike Parameter().
2242 </font></p><p><font>Adds a bind parameter suitable for return values or special data handling (eg.
2243 LOBs) after a statement has been prepared using PrepareSP(). Only for mssql
2244 and oci8 currently. The parameters are:<br>
2245 <br>
2246 $<i><b>stmt</b></i> Statement returned by Prepare() or PrepareSP().<br>
2247 $<i><b>var</b></i> PHP variable to bind to. Make sure you pre-initialize it!<br>
2248 $<i><b>name</b></i> Name of stored procedure variable name to bind to.<br>
2249 [$<i><b>isOutput</b></i>] Indicates direction of parameter 0/false=IN 1=OUT
2250 2= IN/OUT. This is ignored in oci8 as this driver auto-detects the direction.<br>
2251 [$<b>maxLen</b>] Maximum length of the parameter variable.<br>
2252 [$<b>type</b>] Consult <a href="http://php.net/mssql_bind">mssql_bind</a> and
2253 <a href="http://php.net/ocibindbyname">ocibindbyname</a> docs at php.net for
2254 more info on legal values for type.</font></p>
2255 <p><font>Lastly, in oci8, bind parameters can be reused without calling PrepareSP( )
2256 or Parameters again. This is not possible with mssql. An oci8 example:</font></p>
2257 <pre><font>$id = 0; $i = 0;<br>$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP( <font color="#993300">"update table set val=:i where id=:id"</font>);<br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$id,'id');<br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$i, 'i');<br>for ($cnt=0; $cnt &lt; 1000; $cnt++) {<br> $id = $cnt; <br> $i = $cnt * $cnt; <font color="green"># works with oci8!</font>
2258 $db-&gt;Execute($stmt); <br>}</font></pre>
2259 <p><font><b>Bind<a name="bind"></a>($stmt, $var, $size=4001, $type=false, $name=false)</b></font></p>
2260
2261 <p><font>This is a low-level function supported only by the oci8
2262 driver. <b>Avoid using</b> unless you only want to support Oracle. The Parameter(
2263 ) function is the recommended way to go with bind variables.</font></p>
2264 <p><font>Bind( ) allows you to use bind variables in your sql
2265 statement. This binds a PHP variable to a name defined in an Oracle sql statement
2266 that was previously prepared using Prepare(). Oracle named variables begin with
2267 a colon, and ADOdb requires the named variables be called :0, :1, :2, :3, etc.
2268 The first invocation of Bind() will match :0, the second invocation will match
2269 :1, etc. Binding can provide 100% speedups for insert, select and update statements.
2270 </font></p>
2271 <p>The other variables, $size sets the buffer size for data storage, $type is
2272 the optional descriptor type OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File),
2273 OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID).
2274 Lastly, instead of using the default :0, :1, etc names, you can define your
2275 own bind-name using $name.
2276 </p><p><font>The following example shows 3 bind variables being used:
2277 p1, p2 and p3. These variables are bound to :0, :1 and :2.</font></p>
2278 <pre>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare("insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:0, :1, :2)");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1);<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2);<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3);<br>for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { <br> $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;<br> $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);<br>}</pre>
2279 <p>You can also use named variables:</p>
2280 <pre>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare("insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:name0, :name1, :name2)");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1, "name0");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2, "name1");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3, "name2");<br>for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { <br> $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;<br> $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);<br>}</pre>
2281 <p><b>LogSQL($enable=true)<a name="logsql"></a></b></p>
2282 Call this method to install a SQL logging and timing function (using fnExecute).
2283 Then all SQL statements are logged into an adodb_logsql table in a database. If
2284 the adodb_logsql table does not exist, ADOdb will create the table if you have
2285 the appropriate permissions. Returns the previous logging value (true for enabled,
2286 false for disabled). Here are samples of the DDL for selected databases:
2287 <p>
2288 </p><pre> <b>mysql:</b>
2289 CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2290 created datetime NOT NULL,
2291 sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2292 sql1 text NOT NULL,
2293 params text NOT NULL,
2294 tracer text NOT NULL,
2295 timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2296 )
2297
2298 <b>postgres:</b>
2299 CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2300 created timestamp NOT NULL,
2301 sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2302 sql1 text NOT NULL,
2303 params text NOT NULL,
2304 tracer text NOT NULL,
2305 timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2306 )
2307
2308 <b>mssql:</b>
2309 CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2310 created datetime NOT NULL,
2311 sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2312 sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,
2313 params varchar(3000) NOT NULL,
2314 tracer varchar(500) NOT NULL,
2315 timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2316 )
2317
2318 <b>oci8:</b>
2319 CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2320 created date NOT NULL,
2321 sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2322 sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,
2323 params varchar(4000),
2324 tracer varchar(4000),
2325 timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2326 )
2327 </pre>
2328 Usage:
2329 <pre> $conn-&gt;LogSQL(); // turn on logging<br> :<br> $conn-&gt;Execute(...);<br> :<br> $conn-&gt;LogSQL(false); // turn off logging<br> <br> # output summary of SQL logging results<br> $perf = NewPerfMonitor($conn);<br> echo $perf-&gt;SuspiciousSQL();<br> echo $perf-&gt;ExpensiveSQL();<br></pre>
2330 <p>One limitation of logging is that rollback also prevents SQL from being logged.
2331 </p><p>
2332 If you prefer to use another name for the table used to store the SQL, you can override it by calling
2333 adodb_perf::table($tablename), where $tablename is the new table name (you will still need to manually
2334 create the table yourself). An example:
2335 </p><pre> include('adodb.inc.php');<br> include('adodb-perf.inc.php');<br> adodb_perf::table('my_logsql_table');<br></pre>
2336 Also see <a href="docs-perf.htm">Performance Monitor</a>.
2337 <p><font><b>fnExecute and fnCacheExecute properties<a name="fnexecute" id="fnexecute"></a></b></font></p>
2338 <p>These two properties allow you to define bottleneck functions for all sql statements
2339 processed by ADOdb. This allows you to perform statistical analysis and query-rewriting
2340 of your sql.
2341 </p><p><b>Examples of fnExecute</b></p>
2342 <p>Here is an example of using fnExecute, to count all cached queries and non-cached
2343 queries, you can do this:</p>
2344 <pre><font color="#006600"># $db is the connection object</font>
2345 function CountExecs($db, $sql, $inputarray)
2346 {
2347 global $EXECS;
2348
2349 if (!is_array(inputarray)) $EXECS++;
2350 <font color="#006600"># handle 2-dimensional input arrays</font>
2351 else if (is_array(reset($inputarray))) $EXECS += sizeof($inputarray);
2352 else $EXECS++;
2353 }
2354
2355 <font color="#006600"># $db is the connection object</font>
2356 function CountCachedExecs($db, $secs2cache, $sql, $inputarray)
2357 {<br>global $CACHED; $CACHED++;<br>}<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>$db-&gt;Connect(...);<br>$db-&gt;<strong>fnExecute</strong> = 'CountExecs';<br>$db-&gt;<strong>fnCacheExecute</strong> = 'CountCachedExecs';<br> :<br> :<br><font color="#006600"># After many sql statements:</font>`<br>printf("&lt;p&gt;Total queries=%d; total cached=%d&lt;/p&gt;",$EXECS+$CACHED, $CACHED);<br></pre>
2358 <p>The fnExecute function is called before the sql is parsed and executed, so
2359 you can perform a query rewrite. If you are passing in a prepared statement,
2360 then $sql is an array (see <a href="#prepare">Prepare</a>). The fnCacheExecute
2361 function is only called if the recordset returned was cached.<font>
2362 The function parameters match the Execute and CacheExecute functions respectively,
2363 except that $this (the connection object) is passed as the first parameter.</font></p>
2364 <p>Since ADOdb 3.91, the behaviour of fnExecute varies depending on whether the
2365 defined function returns a value. If it does not return a value, then the $sql
2366 is executed as before. This is useful for query rewriting or counting sql queries.
2367 </p><p> On the other hand, you might want to replace the Execute function with one
2368 of your own design. If this is the case, then have your function return a value.
2369 If a value is returned, that value is returned immediately, without any further
2370 processing. This is used internally by ADOdb to implement LogSQL() functionality.
2371 </p>
2372 <p>
2373 </p><hr />
2374 <h3><font>ADOConnection Utility Functions</font></h3>
2375 <p><font><b>BlankRecordSet<a name="blankrecordset"></a>([$queryid])</b></font></p>
2376 <p><font>No longer available - removed since 1.99.</font></p>
2377 <p><font><b>Concat<a name="concat"></a>($s1,$s2,....)</b></font></p>
2378 <p><font>Generates the sql string used to concatenate $s1, $s2, etc together. Uses the
2379 string in the concat_operator field to generate the concatenation. Override
2380 this function if a concatenation operator is not used, eg. MySQL.</font></p>
2381 <p><font>Returns the concatenated string.</font></p>
2382 <p><font><b>DBDate<a name="dbdate"></a>($date)</b></font></p>
2383 <p><font>Format the $<b>date</b> in the format the database accepts. This is used in
2384 INSERT/UPDATE statements; for SELECT statements, use <a href="#sqldate">SQLDate</a>.
2385 The $<b>date</b> parameter can be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format
2386 Y-m-d. Uses the fmtDate field, which holds the format to use. If null or false
2387 or '' is passed in, it will be converted to an SQL null.</font></p>
2388 <p><font>Returns the date as a quoted string.</font></p>
2389 <pre>
2390 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ".$db->DBDate("$year-$month-$day");
2391 $db->Execute($sql);
2392 </pre>
2393 <p><font><b>BindDate<a name="binddate"></a>($date)</b></font></p>
2394 <p><font>Format the $<b>date</b> in the bind format the database accepts. Normally
2395 this means that the date string is not quoted, unlike DBDate, which quotes the string.
2396 <pre>
2397 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ".$db->Param('0');
2398 // or
2399 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ?";
2400 $db->Execute($sql,array($db->BindDate("$year-$month-$day"));
2401 </pre>
2402 <p><font><b>DBTimeStamp<a name="dbtimestamp"></a>($ts)</b></font></p>
2403 <p><font>Format the timestamp $<b>ts</b> in the format the database accepts; this can
2404 be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d H:i:s. Uses the fmtTimeStamp
2405 field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed in, it
2406 will be converted to an SQL null.</font></p>
2407 <p><font>Returns the timestamp as a quoted string.</font></p>
2408 <pre>
2409 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ".$db->DBTimeStamp("$year-$month-$day $hr:$min:$secs");
2410 $db->Execute($sql);
2411 </pre>
2412 <p><font><b>BindTimeStamp<a name="bindtimestamp"></a>($ts)</b></font></p>
2413 <p><font>Format the timestamp $<b>ts</b> in the bind format the database accepts. Normally
2414 this means that the timestamp string is not quoted, unlike DBTimeStamp, which quotes the string.
2415 <pre>
2416 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ".$db->Param('0');
2417 // or
2418 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ?";
2419 $db->Execute($sql,array($db->BindTimeStamp("$year-$month-$day $hr:$min:$secs"));
2420 </pre>
2421 <p><font><b>qstr<a name="qstr"></a>($s,[$magic_quotes_enabled</b>=false]<b>)</b></font></p>
2422 <p><font>Quotes a string to be sent to the database. The $<b>magic_quotes_enabled</b>
2423 parameter may look funny, but the idea is if you are quoting a string extracted
2424 from a POST/GET variable, then pass get_magic_quotes_gpc() as the second parameter.
2425 This will ensure that the variable is not quoted twice, once by <i>qstr</i>
2426 and once by the <i>magic_quotes_gpc</i>.</font></p>
2427 <p><font>Eg.<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> $s = $db-&gt;qstr(HTTP_GET_VARS['name'],get_magic_quotes_gpc());</font></font></p>
2428 <p><font>Returns the quoted string.</font></p>
2429 <p><font><b>Quote<a name="quote"></a>($s)</b></font></p>
2430 <p><font>Quotes the string $s, escaping the database specific quote character as appropriate.
2431 Formerly checked magic quotes setting, but this was disabled since 3.31 for
2432 compatibility with PEAR DB.
2433 </font></p><p><font><b>Affected_Rows<a name="affected_rows"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2434 <p><font>Returns the number of rows affected by a update or delete statement. Returns
2435 false if function not supported.</font></p>
2436 <p><font>Not supported by interbase/firebird currently. </font></p>
2437 <p><font><b>Insert_ID<a name="inserted_id"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2438 <p><font>Returns the last autonumbering ID inserted. Returns false if function not supported.
2439 </font></p>
2440 <p><font>Only supported by databases that support auto-increment or object id's, such
2441 as PostgreSQL, MySQL and MS SQL Server currently. PostgreSQL returns the OID, which
2442 can change on a database reload.</font></p>
2443 <p><font><b>RowLock<a name="rowlock"></a>($table,$where)</b></font></p>
2444 <p><font>Lock a table row for the duration of a transaction. For example to lock record $id in table1:
2445 </font></p><pre><font> $DB-&gt;StartTrans();<br> $DB-&gt;RowLock("table1","rowid=$id");<br> $DB-&gt;Execute($sql1);<br> $DB-&gt;Execute($sql2);<br> $DB-&gt;CompleteTrans();<br></font></pre>
2446 <p><font>Supported in db2, interbase, informix, mssql, oci8, postgres, sybase.
2447 </font></p><p><font><b>MetaDatabases<a name="metadatabases"></a>()</b></font></p>
2448 <p><font>Returns a list of databases available on the server as an array. You have to
2449 connect to the server first. Only available for ODBC, MySQL and ADO.</font></p>
2450 <p><font><b>MetaTables<a name="metatables"></a>($ttype = false, $showSchema = false,
2451 $mask=false)</b></font></p>
2452 <p><font>Returns an array of tables and views for the current database as an array.
2453 The array should exclude system catalog tables if possible. To only show tables,
2454 use $db-&gt;MetaTables('TABLES'). To show only views, use $db-&gt;MetaTables('VIEWS').
2455 The $showSchema parameter currently works only for DB2, and when set to true,
2456 will add the schema name to the table, eg. "SCHEMA.TABLE". </font></p>
2457 <p><font>You can define a mask for matching. For example, setting $mask = 'TMP%' will
2458 match all tables that begin with 'TMP'. Currently only mssql, oci8, odbc_mssql
2459 and postgres* support $mask.
2460 </font></p><p><font><b>MetaColumns<a name="metacolumns"></a>($table,$notcasesensitive=true)</b></font></p>
2461 <p><font>Returns an array of ADOFieldObject's, one field object for every column of
2462 $table. A field object is a class instance with (name, type, max_length) defined.
2463 Currently Sybase does not recognise date types, and ADO cannot identify
2464 the correct data type (so we default to varchar).
2465 </font></p><p><font> The $notcasesensitive parameter determines whether we uppercase or lowercase the table name to normalize it
2466 (required for some databases). Does not work with MySQL ISAM tables.
2467 </font></p><p><font>For schema support, pass in the $table parameter, "$schema.$tablename". This is only
2468 supported for selected databases.
2469 </font></p><p><font><b>MetaColumnNames<a name="metacolumnames"></a>($table,$numericIndex=false)</b></font></p>
2470 <p><font>Returns an array of column names for $table. Since ADOdb 4.22, this is an associative array, with the
2471 keys in uppercase. Set $numericIndex=true if you want the old behaviour of numeric indexes (since 4.23).
2472 </font></p><p>
2473 <font>e.g. array('FIELD1' =&gt; 'Field1', 'FIELD2'=&gt;'Field2')
2474 </font></p><p>
2475 </p><p><font><b>MetaPrimaryKeys<a name="metaprimarykeys"></a>($table,
2476 $owner=false)</b></font>
2477 </p>
2478 <p><font>Returns an array containing column names that are the
2479 primary keys of $table. Supported by mysql, odbc (including db2, odbc_mssql,
2480 etc), mssql, postgres, interbase/firebird, oci8 currently. </font></p>
2481 <p><font>Views (and some tables) have primary keys, but sometimes this information is not available from the
2482 database. You can define a function ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys($databaseType, $database, $view, $owner) that
2483 should return an array containing the fields that make up the primary key. If that function exists,
2484 it will be called when MetaPrimaryKeys() cannot find a primary key for a table or view.
2485 </font></p><pre><font>// In this example: dbtype = 'oci8', $db = 'mydb', $view = 'dataView', $owner = false <br>function ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys($dbtype,$db,$view,$owner)<br>{<br> switch(strtoupper($view)) {<br> case 'DATAVIEW': return array('DATAID');<br> default: return false;<br> }<br>}<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('oci8');<br>$db-&gt;Connect('localhost','root','','mydb'); <br>$db-&gt;MetaPrimaryKeys('dataView');<br></font></pre>
2486 <p><font><b>ServerInfo<a name="serverinfo" id="serverinfo"></a>()</b></font>
2487 </p>
2488 <p><font>Returns an array of containing two elements 'description'
2489 and 'version'. The 'description' element contains the string description of
2490 the database. The 'version' naturally holds the version number (which is also
2491 a string).</font></p>
2492 <p><font><b>MetaForeignKeys<a name="metaforeignkeys"></a>($table, $owner=false, $upper=false)</b>
2493 </font></p><p><font>Returns an associate array of foreign keys, or false if not supported. For
2494 example, if table employee has a foreign key where employee.deptkey points to
2495 dept_table.deptid, and employee.posn=posn_table.postionid and employee.poscategory=posn_table.category,
2496 then $conn-&gt;MetaForeignKeys('employee') will return
2497 </font></p><pre><font> array(<br> 'dept_table' =&gt; array('deptkey=deptid'),<br> 'posn_table' =&gt; array('posn=positionid','poscategory=category')<br> )<br></font></pre>
2498 <p><font>The optional schema or owner can be defined in $owner. If $upper is true, then
2499 the table names (array keys) are upper-cased.
2500 </font></p><hr />
2501 <h2><font>ADORecordSet<a name="adorecordset"></a></font></h2>
2502 <p><font>When an SQL statement successfully is executed by <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection-&gt;Execute($sql),</font>an
2503 ADORecordSet object is returned. This object contains a virtual cursor so we
2504 can move from row to row, functions to obtain information about the columns
2505 and column types, and helper functions to deal with formating the results to
2506 show to the user.</font></p>
2507 <h3><font>ADORecordSet Fields</font></h3>
2508 <p><font><b>fields: </b>Array containing the current row. This is not associative, but
2509 is an indexed array from 0 to columns-1. See also the function <b><a href="#fields">Fields</a></b>,
2510 which behaves like an associative array.</font></p>
2511 <p><font><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database.
2512 Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</font></p>
2513 <p><font><b>blobSize</b>: Maximum size of a char, string or varchar object before it
2514 is treated as a Blob (Blob's should be shown with textarea's). See the <a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>
2515 function.</font></p>
2516 <p><font><b>sql</b>: Holds the sql statement used to generate this record set.</font></p>
2517 <p><font><b>canSeek</b>: Set to true if Move( ) function works.</font></p>
2518 <p><font><b>EOF</b>: True if we have scrolled the cursor past the last record.</font></p>
2519 <h3><font>ADORecordSet Functions</font></h3>
2520 <p><font><b>ADORecordSet( )</b></font></p>
2521 <p><font>Constructer. Normally you never call this function yourself.</font></p>
2522 <p><font><b>GetAssoc<a name="getassoc"></a>([$force_array])</b></font></p>
2523 <p><font>Generates an associative array from the recordset. Note that is this function
2524 is also <a href="#getassoc1">available</a> in the connection object. More details
2525 can be found there.</font></p>
2526 <font> </font>
2527 <p><font><b>GetArray<a name="getarray"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></font></p>
2528 <p><font>Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current
2529 cursor position, indexed from 0 to $number_of_rows - 1. If $number_of_rows
2530 is undefined, till EOF.</font></p>
2531 <p><font><b>GetRows<a name="getrows"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></font></p>
2532 <font>Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current
2533 cursor position. Synonym for GetArray() for compatibility with Microsoft ADO. </font>
2534 <p><font> <b>GetMenu<a name="getmenu"></a>($name, [$default_str=''],
2535 [$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></font></p>
2536 <p><font>Generate a HTML menu (&lt;select&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;/select&gt;).
2537 The first column of the recordset (fields[0]) will hold the string to display
2538 in the option tags. If the recordset has more than 1 column, the second column
2539 (fields[1]) is the value to send back to the web server.. The menu will be
2540 given the name $<i>name</i>. </font></p>
2541 <p><font> If $<i>default_str</i> is defined, then if $<i>default_str</i> ==
2542 fields[0], that field is selected. If $<i>blank1stItem</i> is true, the first
2543 option is empty. You can also set the first option strings by setting $blank1stItem
2544 = "$value:$text".</font></p>
2545 <p><font>$<i>Default_str</i> can be array for a multiple select
2546 listbox.</font></p>
2547 <p><font>To get a listbox, set the $<i>size</i> to a non-zero
2548 value (or pass $default_str as an array). If $<i>multiple_select</i> is true
2549 then a listbox will be generated with $<i>size</i> items (or if $size==0,
2550 then 5 items) visible, and we will return an array to a server. Lastly use
2551 $<i>moreAttr </i> to add additional attributes such as javascript or styles. </font></p>
2552 <p><font>Menu Example 1: <code>GetMenu('menu1','A',true)</code> will
2553 generate a menu:
2554 <select name="menu1"><option> </option><option value="1" selected="selected">A </option><option value="2">B </option><option value="3">C </option></select>
2555 for the data (A,1), (B,2), (C,3). Also see <a href="#ex5">example 5</a>.</font></p>
2556 <p><font>Menu Example 2: For the same data, <code>GetMenu('menu1',array('A','B'),false)</code> will
2557 generate a menu with both A and B selected: <br>
2558 <select name="menu1" multiple="multiple" size="3"><option value="1" selected="selected">A </option><option value="2" selected="selected">B </option><option value="3">C </option></select>
2559 </font></p>
2560 <p><font> <b>GetMenu2<a name="getmenu2"></a>($name, [$default_str=''],
2561 [$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></font></p>
2562 <p><font>This is nearly identical to GetMenu, except that the
2563 $<i>default_str</i> is matched to fields[1] (the option values).</font></p>
2564 <p><font>Menu Example 3: Given the data in menu example 2, <code>GetMenu2('menu1',array('1','2'),false)</code> will
2565 generate a menu with both A and B selected in menu example 2, but this time
2566 the selection is based on the 2nd column, which holds the values to return
2567 to the Web server. </font></p>
2568 <p><font><b>UserDate<a name="userdate"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></font></p>
2569 <p><font>Converts the date string $<i>str</i> to another format.
2570 The date format is Y-m-d, or Unix timestamp format. The default $<i>fmt</i> is
2571 Y-m-d.</font></p>
2572 <p><font><b>UserTimeStamp<a name="usertimestamp"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></font></p>
2573 <p><font>Converts the timestamp string $<b>str</b> to another
2574 format. The timestamp format is Y-m-d H:i:s, as in '2002-02-28 23:00:12',
2575 or Unix timestamp format. UserTimeStamp calls UnixTimeStamp to parse $<i>str</i>,
2576 and $<i>fmt</i> defaults to Y-m-d H:i:s if not defined. </font></p>
2577 <p><font><b>UnixDate<a name="unixdate"></a>($str)</b></font></p>
2578 <p><font>Parses the date string $<b>str</b> and returns it in
2579 unix mktime format (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January 1st,
2580 1970). Expects the date to be in Y-m-d H:i:s format, except for Sybase and
2581 Microsoft SQL Server, where M d Y is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings
2582 are controlled by a global array, which might need localisation).</font></p>
2583 <p><font>This function is available in both ADORecordSet and
2584 ADOConnection since 1.91.</font></p>
2585 <p><font><b>UnixTimeStamp<a name="unixtimestamp"></a>($str)</b></font></p>
2586 <p><font>Parses the timestamp string $<b>str</b> and returns
2587 it in unix mktime format (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January
2588 1st, 1970). Expects the date to be in "Y-m-d, H:i:s" (1970-12-24, 00:00:00)
2589 or "Y-m-d H:i:s" (1970-12-24 00:00:00) or "YmdHis" (19701225000000) format,
2590 except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where "M d Y h:i:sA" (Dec 25
2591 1970 00:00:00AM) is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled
2592 by a global array, which might need localisation).</font></p>
2593 <font>
2594 </font><p><font>This function is available in both ADORecordSet
2595 and ADOConnection since 1.91. </font></p>
2596 <p><font><b>OffsetDate<a name="offsetdate"></a>($dayFraction,
2597 $basedate=false)</b></font></p>
2598 <p><font>Returns a string with the native SQL functions to calculate
2599 future and past dates based on $basedate in a portable fashion. If $basedate
2600 is not defined, then the current date (at 12 midnight) is used. Returns the
2601 SQL string that performs the calculation when passed to Execute(). </font></p>
2602 <p><font>For example, in Oracle, to find the date and time that
2603 is 2.5 days from today, you can use:</font></p>
2604 <pre><font># get date one week from now<br>$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(7); // returns "(trunc(sysdate)+7")</font></pre>
2605 <pre><font># get date and time that is 60 hours from current date and time<br>$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(2.5, $conn-&gt;sysTimeStamp); // returns "(sysdate+2.5)"<br><br>$conn-&gt;Execute("UPDATE TABLE SET dodate=$fld WHERE ID=$id");</font></pre>
2606 <p><font> This function is available for mysql, mssql, oracle, oci8 and postgresql drivers
2607 since 2.13. It might work with other drivers provided they allow performing
2608 numeric day arithmetic on dates.</font></p>
2609 <font> </font>
2610 <p><font><b>SQLDate<a name="sqldate"></a>($dateFormat, $basedate=false)</b></font></p>
2611 <font>Returns a string which contains the native SQL functions
2612 to format a date or date column $basedate. This is used in SELECT statements.
2613 For INSERT/UPDATE statements, use <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>. It uses a case-sensitive
2614 $dateFormat, which supports: </font>
2615 <pre><font>
2616 Y: 4-digit Year
2617 Q: Quarter (1-4)
2618 M: Month (Jan-Dec)
2619 m: Month (01-12)
2620 d: Day (01-31)
2621 H: Hour (00-23)
2622 h: Hour (1-12)
2623 i: Minute (00-59)
2624 s: Second (00-60)
2625 A: AM/PM indicator
2626 w: day of week (0-6 or 1-7 depending on DB)
2627 l: day of week (as string - lowercase L)
2628 W: week in year (0..53 for MySQL, 1..53 for PostgreSQL and Oracle)
2629 </font></pre>
2630 <p><font>All other characters are treated as strings. You can
2631 also use \ to escape characters. Available on selected databases, including
2632 mysql, postgresql, mssql, oci8 and DB2. </font></p>
2633 <p><font>This is useful in writing portable sql statements that
2634 GROUP BY on dates. For example to display total cost of goods sold broken
2635 by quarter (dates are stored in a field called postdate): </font></p>
2636 <pre><font> $sqlfn = $db-&gt;SQLDate('Y-\QQ','postdate'); # get sql that formats postdate to output 2002-Q1<br> $sql = "SELECT $sqlfn,SUM(cogs) FROM table GROUP BY $sqlfn ORDER BY 1 desc";<br> </font></pre>
2637 <p><font><b>MoveNext<a name="movenext"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2638 <p><font>Move the internal cursor to the next row. The <i>$this-&gt;fields</i> array
2639 is automatically updated. Returns false if unable to do so (normally because
2640 EOF has been reached), otherwise true. </font></p>
2641 <p><font> If EOF is reached, then the $this-&gt;fields array
2642 is set to false (this was only implemented consistently in ADOdb 3.30). For
2643 the pre-3.30 behaviour of $this-&gt;fields (at EOF), set the global variable
2644 $ADODB_COMPAT_FETCH = true.</font></p>
2645 <p><font>Example:</font></p>
2646 <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if ($rs) <br> while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {<br> ProcessArray($rs-&gt;fields); <br> $rs-&gt;MoveNext();<br> } </font></pre>
2647 <p><font><b>Move<a name="move"></a>($to)</b></font></p>
2648 <p><font>Moves the internal cursor to a specific row $<b>to</b>.
2649 Rows are zero-based eg. 0 is the first row. The <b>fields</b> array is automatically
2650 updated. For databases that do not support scrolling internally, ADOdb will
2651 simulate forward scrolling. Some databases do not support backward scrolling.
2652 If the $<b>to</b> position is after the EOF, $<b>to</b> will move to the
2653 end of the RecordSet for most databases. Some obscure databases using odbc
2654 might not behave this way.</font></p>
2655 <p><font>Note: This function uses <i>absolute positioning</i>,
2656 unlike Microsoft's ADO.</font></p>
2657 <p><font>Returns true or false. If false, the internal cursor
2658 is not moved in most implementations, so AbsolutePosition( ) will return
2659 the last cursor position before the Move( ). </font></p>
2660 <p><font><b>MoveFirst<a name="movefirst"></a>()</b></font></p>
2661 <p><font>Internally calls Move(0). Note that some databases do
2662 not support this function.</font></p>
2663 <p><font><b>MoveLast<a name="movelast"></a>()</b></font></p>
2664 <p><font>Internally calls Move(RecordCount()-1). Note that some
2665 databases do not support this function.</font></p>
2666 <p><font><b>GetRowAssoc</b><a name="getrowassoc"></a>($toUpper=true)</font></p>
2667 <p><font>Returns an associative array containing the current
2668 row. The keys to the array are the column names. The column names are upper-cased
2669 for easy access. To get the next row, you will still need to call MoveNext(). </font></p>
2670 <p><font>For example:<br>
2671 Array ( [ID] =&gt; 1 [FIRSTNAME] =&gt; Caroline [LASTNAME] =&gt; Miranda [CREATED]
2672 =&gt; 2001-07-05 ) </font></p>
2673 <p><font>Note: do not use GetRowAssoc() with $ADODB_FETCH_MODE
2674 = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Because they have the same functionality, they will
2675 interfere with each other.</font></p>
2676 <font>
2677 </font><p><font><b>AbsolutePage<a name="absolutepage"></a>($page=-1) </b></font></p>
2678 <p><font>Returns the current page. Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called.
2679 See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</font></p>
2680 <font>
2681 <p><b>AtFirstPage<a name="atfirstpage">($status='')</a></b></p>
2682 <p>Returns true if at first page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute()
2683 to be called. See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</p>
2684 <p><b>AtLastPage<a name="atlastpage">($status='')</a></b></p>
2685 <p>Returns true if at last page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute()
2686 to be called. See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</p>
2687 <p><b>Fields</b><a name="fields"></a>(<b>$colname</b>)</p>
2688 <p>Returns the value of the associated column $<b>colname</b> for the current
2689 row. The column name is case-insensitive.</p>
2690 <p>This is a convenience function. For higher performance, use <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>. </p>
2691 <p><b>FetchRow</b><a name="fetchrow"></a>()</p>
2692 </font><p><font>Returns array containing current row, or false
2693 if EOF. FetchRow( ) internally moves to the next record after returning the
2694 current row. </font></p>
2695 <p><font>Warning: Do not mix using FetchRow() with MoveNext().</font></p>
2696 <p><font>Usage:</font></p>
2697 <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if ($rs)<br> while ($arr = $rs-&gt;FetchRow()) {<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;# process $arr <br> }</font></pre>
2698 <p><font><b>FetchInto</b><a name="fetchinto"></a>(<b>&amp;$array</b>)</font></p>
2699 <p><font> Sets $array to the current row. Returns PEAR_Error
2700 object if EOF, 1 if ok (DB_OK constant). If PEAR is undefined, false is returned
2701 when EOF. FetchInto( ) internally moves to the next record after returning
2702 the current row. </font></p>
2703 <p><font> FetchRow() is easier to use. See above.</font></p>
2704 <font> </font>
2705 <p><font><b>FetchField<a name="fetchfield"></a>($column_number)</b></font></p>
2706 <p><font>Returns an object containing the <b>name</b>, <b>type</b> and <b>max_length</b> of
2707 the associated field. If the max_length cannot be determined reliably, it
2708 will be set to -1. The column numbers are zero-based. See <a href="#ex2">example
2709 2.</a></font></p>
2710 <p><font><b>FieldCount<a name="fieldcount"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2711 <p><font>Returns the number of fields (columns) in the record
2712 set.</font></p>
2713 <p><font><b>RecordCount<a name="recordcount"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2714 <p><font>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the
2715 number of records returned cannot be determined from the database driver
2716 API, we will buffer all rows and return a count of the rows after all the
2717 records have been retrieved. This buffering can be disabled (for performance
2718 reasons) by setting the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false. When disabled,
2719 RecordCount( ) will return -1 for certain databases. See the supported databases
2720 list above for more details. </font></p>
2721 <p><font> RowCount is a synonym for RecordCount.</font></p>
2722 <p><font><b>PO_RecordCount<a name="po_recordcount"></a>($table,
2723 $where)</b></font></p>
2724 <p><font>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the
2725 database does not support this, it will perform a SELECT COUNT(*) on the
2726 table $table, with the given $where condition to return an estimate of the
2727 recordset size.</font></p>
2728 <p><font>$numrows = $rs-&gt;PO_RecordCount("articles_table", "group=$group");</font></p>
2729 <font><b> NextRecordSet<a name="nextrecordset" id="nextrecordset"></a>()</b> </font>
2730 <p><font>For databases that allow multiple recordsets to be returned
2731 in one query, this function allows you to switch to the next recordset. Currently
2732 only supported by mssql driver.</font></p>
2733 <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('execute return_multiple_rs');<br>$arr1 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();<br>$rs-&gt;NextRecordSet();<br>$arr2 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();</font></pre>
2734 <p><font><b>FetchObject<a name="fetchobject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></font></p>
2735 <p><font>Returns the current row as an object. If you set $toupper
2736 to true, then the object fields are set to upper-case. Note: The newer FetchNextObject()
2737 is the recommended way of accessing rows as objects. See below.</font></p>
2738 <p><font><b>FetchNextObject<a name="fetchnextobject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></font></p>
2739 <p><font>Gets the current row as an object and moves to the next
2740 row automatically. Returns false if at end-of-file. If you set $toupper to
2741 true, then the object fields are set to upper-case. Note that for some drivers such as mssql, you need to SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC) or SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_BOTH).</font></p>
2742 <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select firstname,lastname from table');<br>if ($rs) {<br> while ($o = $rs-&gt;FetchNextObject()) {<br> print "$o-&gt;FIRSTNAME, $o-&gt;LASTNAME&lt;BR&gt;";<br> }<br>}<br></font></pre>
2743 <p><font>There is some trade-off in speed in using FetchNextObject().
2744 If performance is important, you should access rows with the <code>fields[]</code> array. <b>FetchObj<a name="fetchobj" id="fetchobj"></a>()</b> </font></p>
2745 <p><font>Returns the current record as an object. Fields are
2746 not upper-cased, unlike FetchObject.
2747 </font></p>
2748 <p><font><b>FetchNextObj<a name="fetchnextobj" id="fetchnextobj"></a>()</b> </font></p>
2749 <p><font>Returns the current record as an object and moves to
2750 the next record. If EOF, false is returned. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike
2751 FetctNextObject. </font></p>
2752 <font>
2753 <p><b>CurrentRow<a name="currentrow"></a>( )</b></p>
2754 <p>Returns the current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
2755 <p><b>AbsolutePosition<a name="abspos"></a>( )</b></p>
2756 <p>Synonym for <b>CurrentRow</b> for compatibility with ADO. Returns the current
2757 row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
2758 <p><b>MetaType<a name="metatype"></a>($nativeDBType[,$field_max_length],[$fieldobj])</b></p>
2759 <p>Determine what <i>generic</i> meta type a database field type is given its
2760 native type $<b>nativeDBType</b> as a string and the length of the field $<b>field_max_length</b>.
2761 Note that field_max_length can be -1 if it is not known. The field object returned
2762 by FetchField() can be passed in $<b>fieldobj</b> or as the 1st parameter <b>$nativeDBType</b>.
2763 This is useful for databases such as <i>mysql</i> which has additional properties
2764 in the field object such as <i>primary_key</i>. </p>
2765 <p>Uses the field <b>blobSize</b> and compares it with $<b>field_max_length</b> to
2766 determine whether the character field is actually a blob.</p>
2767 For example, $db-&gt;MetaType('char') will return 'C'.
2768 <p>Returns:</p>
2769 <ul>
2770 <li><b>C</b>: Character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type="text"&gt; tag. </li>
2771 <li><b>X</b>: Clob (character large objects), or large text fields that should
2772 be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
2773 <li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
2774 <li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
2775 <li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
2776 <li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes decimal, numeric, floating point, and
2777 real. </li>
2778 <li><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer field. </li>
2779 <li><b>R</b>: Counter or Autoincrement field. Must be numeric.</li>
2780 <li><b>B</b>: Blob, or binary large objects. </li>
2781 </ul>
2782 </font><p><font> Since ADOdb 3.0, MetaType accepts $fieldobj
2783 as the first parameter, instead of $nativeDBType. </font></p>
2784 <font> </font>
2785 <p><font><b>Close( )<a name="rsclose"></a></b></font></p>
2786 <p><font>Closes the recordset, cleaning all memory and resources
2787 associated with the recordset. </font></p>
2788 <p>
2789 <font>If memory management is not an issue, you do not need to
2790 call this function as recordsets are closed for you by PHP at the end of the
2791 script. SQL statements such as INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE do not really return a recordset,
2792 so you do not have to call Close() for such SQL statements.</font></p>
2793 <hr />
2794 <h3><font>function rs2html<a name="rs2html"></a>($adorecordset,[$tableheader_attributes],
2795 [$col_titles])</font></h3>
2796 <p><font>This is a standalone function (rs2html = recordset to
2797 html) that is similar to PHP's <i>odbc_result_all</i> function, it prints
2798 a ADORecordSet, $<b>adorecordset</b> as a HTML table. $<b>tableheader_attributes</b> allow
2799 you to control the table <i>cellpadding</i>, <i>cellspacing</i> and <i>border</i> attributes.
2800 Lastly you can replace the database column names with your own column titles
2801 with the array $<b>col_titles</b>. This is designed more as a quick debugging
2802 mechanism, not a production table recordset viewer.</font></p>
2803 <p><font>You will need to include the file <i>tohtml.inc.php</i>.</font></p>
2804 <p><font>Example of rs2html:<b><font color="#336600"><a name="exrs2html"></a></font></b></font></p>
2805 <pre><font><b><font color="#336600">&lt;?<br>include('tohtml.inc.php')</font></b>; # load code common to ADOdb <br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb <br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a connection <br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers'; <br>$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($sql); <br><font color="#336600"><b>rs2html</b></font><b>($<font color="#663300">rs</font>,'<i>border=2 cellpadding=3</i>',array('<i>Customer Name','Customer ID</i>'));<br>?&gt;</b></font></pre>
2806 <hr />
2807 <h3><font>Differences between this ADOdb library and Microsoft
2808 ADO<a name="adodiff"></a></font></h3>
2809 <ol>
2810 <font>
2811 <li>ADOdb only supports recordsets created by a connection object. Recordsets
2812 cannot be created independently.</li>
2813 <li>ADO properties are implemented as functions in ADOdb. This makes it easier
2814 to implement any enhanced ADO functionality in the future.</li>
2815 <li>ADOdb's <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;Move()</font> uses
2816 absolute positioning, not relative. Bookmarks are not supported.</li>
2817 <li><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;AbsolutePosition() </font>cannot
2818 be used to move the record cursor.</li>
2819 <li>ADO Parameter objects are not supported. Instead we have the ADOConnection::<a href="#parameter">Parameter</a>(
2820 ) function, which provides a simpler interface for calling preparing parameters
2821 and calling stored procedures.</li>
2822 <li>Recordset properties for paging records are available, but implemented as
2823 in <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</li>
2824 </font></ol>
2825 <hr />
2826 <h1><font>Database Driver Guide<a name="driverguide"></a></font></h1>
2827 <p><font>This describes how to create a class to connect to a
2828 new database. To ensure there is no duplication of work, kindly email me
2829 at jlim#natsoft.com.my if you decide to create such a class.</font></p>
2830 <p><font>First decide on a name in lower case to call the database
2831 type. Let's say we call it xbase. </font></p>
2832 <p><font>Then we need to create two classes ADODB_xbase and ADORecordSet_xbase
2833 in the file adodb-xbase.inc.php.</font></p>
2834 <p><font>The simplest form of database driver is an adaptation
2835 of an existing ODBC driver. Then we just need to create the class <i>ADODB_xbase
2836 extends ADODB_odbc</i> to support the new <b>date</b> and <b>timestamp</b> formats,
2837 the <b>concatenation</b> operator used, <b>true</b> and <b>false</b>. For
2838 the<i> ADORecordSet_xbase extends ADORecordSet_odbc </i>we need to change
2839 the <b>MetaType</b> function. See<b> adodb-vfp.inc.php</b> as an example.</font></p>
2840 <p><font>More complicated is a totally new database driver that
2841 connects to a new PHP extension. Then you will need to implement several
2842 functions. Fortunately, you do not have to modify most of the complex code.
2843 You only need to override a few stub functions. See <b>adodb-mysql.inc.php</b> for
2844 example.</font></p>
2845 <p><font>The default date format of ADOdb internally is YYYY-MM-DD
2846 (Ansi-92). All dates should be converted to that format when passing to an
2847 ADOdb date function. See Oracle for an example how we use ALTER SESSION to
2848 change the default date format in _pconnect _connect.</font></p>
2849 <p><font><b>ADOConnection Functions to Override</b></font></p>
2850 <p><font>Defining a constructor for your ADOConnection derived
2851 function is optional. There is no need to call the base class constructor.</font></p>
2852 <p><font>_<b>connect</b>: Low level implementation of Connect.
2853 Returns true or false. Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</font></p>
2854 <p><font>_<b>pconnect:</b> Low level implemention of PConnect.
2855 Returns true or false. Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</font></p>
2856 <p><font>_<b>query</b>: Execute a query. Returns the queryID,
2857 or false.</font></p>
2858 <p><font>_<b>close: </b>Close the connection -- PHP should clean
2859 up all recordsets. </font></p>
2860 <p><font><b>ErrorMsg</b>: Stores the error message in the private
2861 variable _errorMsg. </font></p>
2862 <p><font><b>ADOConnection Fields to Set</b></font></p>
2863 <p><font>_<b>bindInputArray</b>: Set to true if binding of parameters
2864 for SQL inserts and updates is allowed using ?, eg. as with ODBC.</font></p>
2865 <p><font><b>fmtDate</b></font></p>
2866 <p><font><b>fmtTimeStamp</b></font></p>
2867 <p><font><b>true</b></font></p>
2868 <p><font><b>false</b></font></p>
2869 <p><font><b>concat_operator</b></font></p>
2870 <p><font><b>replaceQuote</b></font></p>
2871 <p><font><b>hasLimit</b> support SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 10
2872 of MySQL.</font></p>
2873 <p><font><b>hasTop</b> support Microsoft style SELECT TOP 10
2874 * FROM TABLE.</font></p>
2875 <p><font><b>ADORecordSet Functions to Override</b></font></p>
2876 <p><font>You will need to define a constructor for your ADORecordSet