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22 <h2>ADOdb Data Dictionary Library for PHP</h2>
23 <p>V4.81 3 May 2006 (c) 2000-2006 John Lim (<a
24 href="mailto:jlim#natsoft.com.my">jlim#natsoft.com.my</a>).<br>
25 AXMLS (c) 2004 ars Cognita, Inc</p>
26 <p><font size="1">This software is dual licensed using BSD-Style and
27 LGPL. This means you can use it in compiled proprietary and commercial
28 products.</font></p>
30 <p>Useful ADOdb links: <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#download">Download</a>
31 &nbsp; <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#docs">Other Docs</a>
32 </p>
33 <p>This documentation describes a PHP class library to automate the
34 creation of tables, indexes and foreign key constraints portably for
35 multiple databases. Richard Tango-Lowy and Dan Cech have been kind
36 enough to contribute <a href="#xmlschema">AXMLS</a>, an XML schema
37 system for defining databases. You can contact them at
38 dcech#phpwerx.net and richtl#arscognita.com.</p>
39 <p>Currently the following databases are supported:</p>
40 <p> <b>Well-tested:</b> PostgreSQL, MySQL, Oracle, MSSQL.<br>
41 <b>Beta-quality:</b> DB2, Informix, Sybase, Interbase, Firebird.<br>
42 <b>Alpha-quality:</b> MS Access (does not support DEFAULT values) and
43 generic ODBC.
44 </p>
45 <h3>Example Usage</h3>
46 <pre> include_once('adodb.inc.php');<br> <font color="#006600"># First create a normal connection</font><br> $db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br> $db-&gt;Connect(...);<br><br> <font
47 color="#006600"># Then create a data dictionary object, using this connection</font><br> $dict = <strong>NewDataDictionary</strong>($db);<br><br> <font
48 color="#006600"># We have a portable declarative data dictionary format in ADOdb, similar to SQL.<br> # Field types use 1 character codes, and fields are separated by commas.<br> # The following example creates three fields: "col1", "col2" and "col3":</font><br> $flds = " <br> <font
49 color="#663300"><strong> col1 C(32) NOTNULL DEFAULT 'abc',<br> col2 I DEFAULT 0,<br> col3 N(12.2)</strong></font><br> ";<br><br> <font
50 color="#006600"># We demonstrate creating tables and indexes</font><br> $sqlarray = $dict-&gt;<strong>CreateTableSQL</strong>($tabname, $flds, $taboptarray);<br> $dict-&gt;<strong>ExecuteSQLArray</strong>($sqlarray);<br><br> $idxflds = 'co11, col2';<br> $sqlarray = $dict-&gt;<strong>CreateIndexSQL</strong>($idxname, $tabname, $idxflds);<br> $dict-&gt;<strong>ExecuteSQLArray</strong>($sqlarray);<br></pre>
51 <h3>Class Factory</h3>
52 <h4>NewDataDictionary($connection, $drivername=false)</h4>
53 <p>Creates a new data dictionary object. You pass a database connection object in $connection. The $connection does not have to be actually connected to the database. Some database connection objects are generic (eg. odbtp and odbc). Since 4.53, you can tell ADOdb the actual database with $drivername. E.g.</p>
54 <pre>
55 $db =& NewADOConnection('odbtp');
56 $datadict = NewDataDictionary($db, 'mssql'); # force mssql
57 </pre>
58 <h3>Class Functions</h3>
59 <h4>function CreateDatabase($dbname, $optionsarray=false)</h4>
60 <p>Create a database with the name $dbname;</p>
61 <h4>function CreateTableSQL($tabname, $fldarray, $taboptarray=false)</h4>
62 <pre> RETURNS: an array of strings, the sql to be executed, or false<br> $tabname: name of table<br> $fldarray: string (or array) containing field info<br> $taboptarray: array containing table options<br></pre>
63 <p>The new format of $fldarray uses a free text format, where each
64 field is comma-delimited.
65 The first token for each field is the field name, followed by the type
66 and optional
67 field size. Then optional keywords in $otheroptions:</p>
68 <pre> "$fieldname $type $colsize $otheroptions"</pre>
69 <p>The older (and still supported) format of $fldarray is a
70 2-dimensional array, where each row in the 1st dimension represents one
71 field. Each row has this format:</p>
72 <pre> array($fieldname, $type, [,$colsize] [,$otheroptions]*)</pre>
73 <p>The first 2 fields must be the field name and the field type. The
74 field type can be a portable type codes or the actual type for that
75 database.</p>
76 <p>Legal portable type codes include:</p>
77 <pre> C: Varchar, capped to 255 characters.<br> X: Larger varchar, capped to 4000 characters (to be compatible with Oracle). <br> XL: For Oracle, returns CLOB, otherwise the largest varchar size.<br><br> C2: Multibyte varchar<br> X2: Multibyte varchar (largest size)<br><br> B: BLOB (binary large object)<br><br> D: Date (some databases do not support this, and we return a datetime type)<br> T: Datetime or Timestamp<br> L: Integer field suitable for storing booleans (0 or 1)<br> I: Integer (mapped to I4)<br> I1: 1-byte integer<br> I2: 2-byte integer<br> I4: 4-byte integer<br> I8: 8-byte integer<br> F: Floating point number<br> N: Numeric or decimal number<br></pre>
78 <p>The $colsize field represents the size of the field. If a decimal
79 number is used, then it is assumed that the number following the dot is
80 the precision, so 6.2 means a number of size 6 digits and 2 decimal
81 places. It is recommended that the default for number types be
82 represented as a string to avoid any rounding errors.</p>
83 <p>The $otheroptions include the following keywords (case-insensitive):</p>
84 <pre> AUTO For autoincrement number. Emulated with triggers if not available.<br> Sets NOTNULL also.<br> AUTOINCREMENT Same as auto.<br> KEY Primary key field. Sets NOTNULL also. Compound keys are supported.<br> PRIMARY Same as KEY.<br> DEF Synonym for DEFAULT for lazy typists.<br> DEFAULT The default value. Character strings are auto-quoted unless<br> the string begins and ends with spaces, eg ' SYSDATE '.<br> NOTNULL If field is not null.<br> DEFDATE Set default value to call function to get today's date.<br> DEFTIMESTAMP Set default to call function to get today's datetime.<br> NOQUOTE Prevents autoquoting of default string values.<br> CONSTRAINTS Additional constraints defined at the end of the field<br> definition.<br></pre>
85 <p>The Data Dictonary accepts two formats, the older array
86 specification:</p>
87 <pre> $flds = array(<br> array('COLNAME', 'DECIMAL', '8.4', 'DEFAULT' =&gt; 0, 'NOTNULL'),<br> array('id', 'I' , 'AUTO'),<br> array('`MY DATE`', 'D' , 'DEFDATE'),<br> array('NAME', 'C' , '32', 'CONSTRAINTS' =&gt; 'FOREIGN KEY REFERENCES reftable')<br> );<br></pre>
88 <p>Or the simpler declarative format:</p>
89 <pre> $flds = "<font color="#660000"><strong><br> COLNAME DECIMAL(8.4) DEFAULT 0 NOTNULL,<br> id I AUTO,<br> `MY DATE` D DEFDATE,<br> NAME C(32) CONSTRAINTS 'FOREIGN KEY REFERENCES reftable'</strong></font><br> ";<br></pre>
90 <p>Note that if you have special characters in the field name (e.g. My
91 Date), you should enclose it in back-quotes. Normally field names are
92 not case-sensitive, but if you enclose it in back-quotes, some
93 databases will treat the names as case-sensitive (eg. Oracle) , and
94 others won't. So be careful.</p>
95 <p>The $taboptarray is the 3rd parameter of the CreateTableSQL
96 function. This contains table specific settings. Legal keywords include:</p>
97 <ul>
98 <li><b>REPLACE</b><br>
99 Indicates that the previous table definition should be removed
100 (dropped)together with ALL data. See first example below. </li>
101 <li><b>DROP</b><br>
102 Drop table. Useful for removing unused tables. </li>
103 <li><b>CONSTRAINTS</b><br>
104 Define this as the key, with the constraint as the value. See the
105 postgresql <a href="#foreignkey">example</a> below. Additional constraints defined for the whole
106 table. You will probably need to prefix this with a comma. </li>
107 </ul>
108 <p>Database specific table options can be defined also using the name
109 of the database type as the array key. In the following example, <em>create
110 the table as ISAM with MySQL, and store the table in the "users"
111 tablespace if using Oracle</em>. And because we specified REPLACE, drop
112 the table first.</p>
113 <pre> $taboptarray = array('mysql' =&gt; 'TYPE=ISAM', 'oci8' =&gt; 'tablespace users', 'REPLACE');</pre>
114 <p><a name=foreignkey></a>You can also define foreign key constraints. The following is syntax
115 for postgresql:
116 </p>
117 <pre> $taboptarray = array('constraints' =&gt; ', FOREIGN KEY (col1) REFERENCES reftable (refcol)');</pre>
118 <h4>function DropTableSQL($tabname)</h4>
119 <p>Returns the SQL to drop the specified table.</p>
120 <h4>function ChangeTableSQL($tabname, $flds)</h4>
121 <p>Checks to see if table exists, if table does not exist, behaves like
122 CreateTableSQL. If table exists, generates appropriate ALTER TABLE
123 MODIFY COLUMN commands if field already exists, or ALTER TABLE ADD
124 $column if field does not exist.</p>
125 <p>The class must be connected to the database for ChangeTableSQL to
126 detect the existence of the table. Idea and code contributed by Florian
127 Buzin.</p>
128 <h4>function RenameTableSQL($tabname,$newname)</h4>
129 <p>Rename a table. Returns the an array of strings, which is the SQL required to rename a table. Since ADOdb 4.53. Contributed by Ralf Becker.</p>
130 <h4> function RenameColumnSQL($tabname,$oldcolumn,$newcolumn,$flds='')</h4>
131 <p>Rename a table field. Returns the an array of strings, which is the SQL required to rename a column. The optional $flds is a complete column-defintion-string like for AddColumnSQL, only used by mysql at the moment. Since ADOdb 4.53. Contributed by Ralf Becker.</p>
132 <h4>function CreateIndexSQL($idxname, $tabname, $flds,
133 $idxoptarray=false)</h4>
134 <pre> RETURNS: an array of strings, the sql to be executed, or false<br> $idxname: name of index<br> $tabname: name of table<br> $flds: list of fields as a comma delimited string or an array of strings<br> $idxoptarray: array of index creation options<br></pre>
135 <p>$idxoptarray is similar to $taboptarray in that index specific
136 information can be embedded in the array. Other options include:</p>
137 <pre> CLUSTERED Create clustered index (only mssql)<br> BITMAP Create bitmap index (only oci8)<br> UNIQUE Make unique index<br> FULLTEXT Make fulltext index (only mysql)<br> HASH Create hash index (only postgres)<br> DROP Drop legacy index<br></pre>
138 <h4>function DropIndexSQL ($idxname, $tabname = NULL)</h4>
139 <p>Returns the SQL to drop the specified index.</p>
140 <h4>function AddColumnSQL($tabname, $flds)</h4>
141 <p>Add one or more columns. Not guaranteed to work under all situations.</p>
142 <h4>function AlterColumnSQL($tabname, $flds)</h4>
143 <p>Warning, not all databases support this feature.</p>
144 <h4>function DropColumnSQL($tabname, $flds)</h4>
145 <p>Drop 1 or more columns.</p>
146 <h4>function SetSchema($schema)</h4>
147 <p>Set the schema.</p>
148 <h4>function &amp;MetaTables()</h4>
149 <h4>function &amp;MetaColumns($tab, $upper=true, $schema=false)</h4>
150 <h4>function &amp;MetaPrimaryKeys($tab,$owner=false,$intkey=false)</h4>
151 <h4>function &amp;MetaIndexes($table, $primary = false, $owner = false)</h4>
152 <p>These functions are wrappers for the corresponding functions in the
153 connection object. However, the table names will be autoquoted by the
154 TableName function (see below) before being passed to the connection
155 object.</p>
156 <h4>function NameQuote($name = NULL)</h4>
157 <p>If the provided name is quoted with backquotes (`) or contains
158 special characters, returns the name quoted with the appropriate quote
159 character, otherwise the name is returned unchanged.</p>
160 <h4>function TableName($name)</h4>
161 <p>The same as NameQuote, but will prepend the current schema if
162 specified</p>
163 <h4>function MetaType($t,$len=-1,$fieldobj=false)</h4>
164 <h4>function ActualType($meta)</h4>
165 <p>Convert between database-independent 'Meta' and database-specific
166 'Actual' type codes.</p>
167 <h4>function ExecuteSQLArray($sqlarray, $contOnError = true)</h4>
168 <pre> RETURNS: 0 if failed, 1 if executed all but with errors, 2 if executed successfully<br> $sqlarray: an array of strings with sql code (no semicolon at the end of string)<br> $contOnError: if true, then continue executing even if error occurs<br></pre>
169 <p>Executes an array of SQL strings returned by CreateTableSQL or
170 CreateIndexSQL.</p>
171 <hr />
172 <a name="xmlschema"></a>
173 <h2>ADOdb XML Schema (AXMLS)</h2>
174 <p>This is a class contributed by Richard Tango-Lowy and Dan Cech that
175 allows the user to quickly
176 and easily build a database using the excellent ADODB database library
177 and a simple XML formatted file.
178 You can <a href="http://sourceforge.net/projects/adodb-xmlschema/">download
179 the latest version of AXMLS here</a>.</p>
180 <h3>Quick Start</h3>
181 <p>Adodb-xmlschema, or AXMLS, is a set of classes that allow the user
182 to quickly and easily build or upgrade a database on almost any RDBMS
183 using the excellent ADOdb database library and a simple XML formatted
184 schema file. Our goal is to give developers a tool that's simple to
185 use, but that will allow them to create a single file that can build,
186 upgrade, and manipulate databases on most RDBMS platforms.</p>
187 <span style="font-weight: bold;"> Installing axmls</span>
188 <p>The easiest way to install AXMLS to download and install any recent
189 version of the ADOdb database abstraction library. To install AXMLS
190 manually, simply copy the adodb-xmlschema.inc.php file and the xsl
191 directory into your adodb directory.</p>
192 <span style="font-weight: bold;"> Using AXMLS in Your Application</span>
193 <p>There are two steps involved in using AXMLS in your application:
194 first, you must create a schema, or XML representation of your
195 database, and second, you must create the PHP code that will parse and
196 execute the schema.</p>
197 <p>Let's begin with a schema that describes a typical, if simplistic
198 user management table for an application.</p>
199 <pre class="listing"><pre>&lt;?xml version="1.0"?&gt;<br>&lt;schema version="0.2"&gt;<br><br> &lt;table name="users"&gt;<br> &lt;desc&gt;A typical users table for our application.&lt;/desc&gt;<br> &lt;field name="userId" type="I"&gt;<br> &lt;descr&gt;A unique ID assigned to each user.&lt;/descr&gt;<br><br> &lt;KEY/&gt;<br> &lt;AUTOINCREMENT/&gt;<br> &lt;/field&gt;<br> <br> &lt;field name="userName" type="C" size="16"&gt;&lt;NOTNULL/&gt;&lt;/field&gt;<br><br> <br> &lt;index name="userName"&gt;<br> &lt;descr&gt;Put a unique index on the user name&lt;/descr&gt;<br> &lt;col&gt;userName&lt;/col&gt;<br> &lt;UNIQUE/&gt;<br><br> &lt;/index&gt;<br> &lt;/table&gt;<br> <br> &lt;sql&gt;<br> &lt;descr&gt;Insert some data into the users table.&lt;/descr&gt;<br> &lt;query&gt;insert into users (userName) values ( 'admin' )&lt;/query&gt;<br><br> &lt;query&gt;insert into users (userName) values ( 'Joe' )&lt;/query&gt;<br> &lt;/sql&gt;<br>&lt;/schema&gt; <br></pre></pre>
200 <p>Let's take a detailed look at this schema.</p>
201 <p>The opening &lt;?xml version="1.0"?&gt; tag is required by XML. The
202 &lt;schema&gt; tag tells the parser that the enclosed markup defines an
203 XML schema. The version="0.2" attribute sets <em>the version of the
204 AXMLS DTD used by the XML schema.</em> </p>
205 <p>All versions of AXMLS prior to version 1.0 have a schema version of
206 "0.1". The current schema version is "0.2".</p>
207 <pre class="listing"><pre>&lt;?xml version="1.0"?&gt;<br>&lt;schema version="0.2"&gt;<br> ...<br>&lt;/schema&gt;<br></pre></pre>
208 <p>Next we define one or more tables. A table consists of a fields (and
209 other objects) enclosed by &lt;table&gt; tags. The name="" attribute
210 specifies the name of the table that will be created in the database.</p>
211 <pre class="listing"><pre>&lt;table name="users"&gt;<br><br> &lt;desc&gt;A typical users table for our application.&lt;/desc&gt;<br> &lt;field name="userId" type="I"&gt;<br><br> &lt;descr&gt;A unique ID assigned to each user.&lt;/descr&gt;<br> &lt;KEY/&gt;<br> &lt;AUTOINCREMENT/&gt;<br> &lt;/field&gt;<br> <br> &lt;field name="userName" type="C" size="16"&gt;&lt;NOTNULL/&gt;&lt;/field&gt;<br><br> <br>&lt;/table&gt;<br></pre></pre>
212 <p>This table is called "users" and has a description and two fields.
213 The description is optional, and is currently only for your own
214 information; it is not applied to the database.</p>
215 <p>The first &lt;field&gt; tag will create a field named "userId" of
216 type "I", or integer. (See the ADOdb Data Dictionary documentation for
217 a list of valid types.) This &lt;field&gt; tag encloses two special
218 field options: &lt;KEY/&gt;, which specifies this field as a primary
219 key, and &lt;AUTOINCREMENT/&gt;, which specifies that the database
220 engine should automatically fill this field with the next available
221 value when a new row is inserted.</p>
222 <p>The second &lt;field&gt; tag will create a field named "userName" of
223 type "C", or character, and of length 16 characters. The
224 &lt;NOTNULL/&gt; option specifies that this field does not allow NULLs.</p>
225 <p>There are two ways to add indexes to a table. The simplest is to
226 mark a field with the &lt;KEY/&gt; option as described above; a primary
227 key is a unique index. The second and more powerful method uses the
228 &lt;index&gt; tags.</p>
229 <pre class="listing"><pre>&lt;table name="users"&gt;<br> ...<br> <br> &lt;index name="userName"&gt;<br> &lt;descr&gt;Put a unique index on the user name&lt;/descr&gt;<br> &lt;col&gt;userName&lt;/col&gt;<br><br> &lt;UNIQUE/&gt;<br> &lt;/index&gt;<br> <br>&lt;/table&gt;<br></pre></pre>
230 <p>The &lt;index&gt; tag specifies that an index should be created on
231 the enclosing table. The name="" attribute provides the name of the
232 index that will be created in the database. The description, as above,
233 is for your information only. The &lt;col&gt; tags list each column
234 that will be included in the index. Finally, the &lt;UNIQUE/&gt; tag
235 specifies that this will be created as a unique index.</p>
236 <p>Finally, AXMLS allows you to include arbitrary SQL that will be
237 applied to the database when the schema is executed.</p>
238 <pre class="listing"><pre>&lt;sql&gt;<br> &lt;descr&gt;Insert some data into the users table.&lt;/descr&gt;<br> &lt;query&gt;insert into users (userName) values ( 'admin' )&lt;/query&gt;<br><br> &lt;query&gt;insert into users (userName) values ( 'Joe' )&lt;/query&gt;<br>&lt;/sql&gt;<br></pre></pre>
239 <p>The &lt;sql&gt; tag encloses any number of SQL queries that you
240 define for your own use.</p>
241 <p>Now that we've defined an XML schema, you need to know how to apply
242 it to your database. Here's a simple PHP script that shows how to load
243 the schema.</p>
244 <pre class="listing"><pre>&lt;?PHP<br>/* You must tell the script where to find the ADOdb and<br> * the AXMLS libraries.<br> */
245 require( "path_to_adodb/adodb.inc.php");
246 require( "path_to_adodb/adodb-xmlschema.inc.php" ); # or adodb-xmlschema03.inc.php
248 /* Configuration information. Define the schema filename,<br> * RDBMS platform (see the ADODB documentation for valid<br> * platform names), and database connection information here.<br> */<br>$schemaFile = 'example.xml';<br>$platform = 'mysql';<br>$dbHost = 'localhost';<br>$dbName = 'database';<br>$dbUser = 'username';<br>$dbPassword = 'password';<br><br>/* Start by creating a normal ADODB connection.<br> */<br>$db = ADONewConnection( $platform );<br>$db-&gt;Connect( $dbHost, $dbUser, $dbPassword, $dbName );<br><br>/* Use the database connection to create a new adoSchema object.<br> */<br>$schema = new adoSchema( $db );<br><br>/* Call ParseSchema() to build SQL from the XML schema file.<br> * Then call ExecuteSchema() to apply the resulting SQL to <br> * the database.<br> */<br>$sql = $schema-&gt;ParseSchema( $schemaFile );<br>$result = $schema-&gt;ExecuteSchema();<br>?&gt;<br></pre></pre>
249 <p>Let's look at each part of the example in turn. After you manually
250 create the database, there are three steps required to load (or
251 upgrade) your schema.</p>
252 <p>First, create a normal ADOdb connection. The variables and values
253 here should be those required to connect to your database.</p>
254 <pre class="listing"><pre>$db = ADONewConnection( 'mysql' );<br>$db-&gt;Connect( 'host', 'user', 'password', 'database' );<br></pre></pre>
255 <p>Second, create the adoSchema object that load and manipulate your
256 schema. You must pass an ADOdb database connection object in order to
257 create the adoSchema object.</p>
258 <pre class="listing">$schema = new adoSchema( $db );<br></pre>
259 <p>Third, call ParseSchema() to parse the schema and then
260 ExecuteSchema() to apply it to the database. You must pass
261 ParseSchema() the path and filename of your schema file.</p>
262 <pre class="listing">$schema-&gt;ParseSchema( $schemaFile ); <br>$schema-&gt;ExecuteSchema();</pre>
263 <p>Execute the above code and then log into your database. If you've
264 done all this right, you should see your tables, indexes, and SQL.</p>
265 <p>You can find the source files for this tutorial in the examples
266 directory as tutorial_shema.xml and tutorial.php. See the class
267 documentation for a more detailed description of the adoSchema methods,
268 including methods and schema elements that are not described in this
269 tutorial.</p>
270 <h3>XML Schema Version 3</h3>
271 <p>In March 2006, we added adodb-xmlschema03.inc.php to the release, which supports version 3 of XML Schema.
272 The adodb-xmlschema.inc.php remains the same as previous releases, and supports version 2 of XML Schema.
273 Version 3 provides some enhancements:
275 <ul>
276 <li> Support for updating table data during an upgrade.
277 <li> Support for platform-specific table options and platform negation.
278 <li> Support for unsigned fields.
279 <li> Fixed opt and constraint support
280 <li> Many other fixes such as OPT tag, which allows you to set optional platform settings:
281 </ul>
283 <p>Example usage:
284 <pre>&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
285 <b>&lt;schema version="0.3"></b>
286 &lt;table name="ats_kb">
287 &lt;descr>ATS KnowledgeBase&lt;/descr>
288 &lt;opt platform="mysql">TYPE=INNODB&lt;/opt>
289 &lt;field name="recid" type="I"/>
290 &lt;field name="organization_code" type="I4"/>
291 &lt;field name="sub_code" type="C" size="20"/>
292 etc...
293 </pre>
294 <p>To use it, change your code to include adodb-xmlschema03.inc.php.
296 <h3>Upgrading</h3>
297 <p>
298 If your schema version is older, than XSLT is used to transform the
299 schema to the newest version. This means that if you are using an older
300 XML schema format, you need to have the XSLT extension installed.
301 If you do not want to require your users to have the XSLT extension
302 installed, make sure you modify your XML schema to conform to the
303 latest version.
304 <hr />
305 <address>If you have any questions or comments, please email them to
306 Richard at richtl#arscognita.com.
307 </address>
308 </body>
309 </html>