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17 <h2>ADOdb Library for PHP</h2>
18 <p>V4.93 10 Oct 2006 (c) 2000-2006 John Lim (jlim#natsoft.com)</p>
19 <p><font size="1">This software is dual licensed using BSD-Style and LGPL. This
20 means you can use it in compiled proprietary and commercial products.</font></p>
23 <p>Useful ADOdb links: <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#download">Download</a> &nbsp; <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#docs">Other Docs</a>
25 </p><p><a href="#intro"><b>Introduction</b></a><b><br>
26 <a href="#features">Unique Features</a><br>
27 <a href="#users">How People are using ADOdb</a><br>
28 <a href="#bugs">Feature Requests and Bug Reports</a><br>
29 </b><b><a href="#install">Installation</a><br>
30 <a href="#mininstall">Minimum Install</a><br>
31 <a href="#coding">Initializing Code and Connectioning to Databases</a><br>
32 </b><font size="2"> &nbsp; <a href="#dsnsupport">Data Source Name (DSN) Support</a></font> &nbsp; <a href="#connect_ex">Connection Examples</a> <br>
33 <b><a href="#speed">High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips</a></b><br>
34 <b><a href="#hack">Hacking and Modifying ADOdb Safely</a><br>
35 <a href="#php5">PHP5 Features</a></b><br>
36 <font size="2"><a href="#php5iterators">foreach iterators</a> <a href="#php5exceptions">exceptions</a></font><br>
37 <b> <a href="#drivers">Supported Databases</a></b><br>
38 <b> <a href="#quickstart">Tutorials</a></b><br>
39 <a href="#ex1">Example 1: Select</a><br>
40 <a href="#ex2">Example 2: Advanced Select</a><br>
41 <a href="#ex3">Example 3: Insert</a><br>
42 <a href="#ex4">Example 4: Debugging</a> &nbsp;<a href="#exrs2html">rs2html
43 example</a><br>
44 <a href="#ex5">Example 5: MySQL and Menus</a><br>
45 <a href="#ex6">Example 6: Connecting to Multiple Databases at once</a> <br>
46 <a href="#ex7">Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL</a> <br>
47 <a href="#ex8">Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous</a><br>
48 <a href="#ex9">Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</a> <br>
49 <a href="#ex10">Example 10: Custom filters</a><br>
50 <a href="#ex11">Example 11: Smart Transactions</a><br>
51 <br>
52 <b> <a href="#errorhandling">Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</a><br>
53 <a href="#DSN">Data Source Names</a><br>
54 <a href="#caching">Caching</a><br>
55 <a href="#pivot">Pivot Tables</a></b>
56 </p><p><a href="#ref"><b>REFERENCE</b></a>
57 </p><p> <font size="2">Variables: <a href="#adodb_countrecs">$ADODB_COUNTRECS</a>
58 <a href="#adodb_ansi_padding_off">$ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF</a>
59 <a href="#adodb_cache_dir">$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</a> <br>
60 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#force_type">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a>
61 <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>
62 <a href="#adodb_lang">$ADODB_LANG</a> <br>
63 Constants: </font><font size="2"><a href="#adodb_assoc_case">ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</a>
64 </font><br>
65 <a href="#ADOConnection"><b> ADOConnection</b></a><br>
66 <font size="2">Connections: <a href="#connect">Connect</a> <a href="#pconnect">PConnect</a>
67 <a href="#nconnect">NConnect</a> <a href="#isconnected">IsConnected</a><br>
68 Executing SQL: <a href="#execute">Execute</a> <a href="#cacheexecute"><i>CacheExecute</i></a>
69 <a href="#selectlimit">SelectLimit</a> <a href="#cacheSelectLimit"><i>CacheSelectLimit</i></a>
70 <a href="#param">Param</a> <a href="#prepare">Prepare</a> <a href="#preparesp">PrepareSP</a>
71 <a href="#inparameter">InParameter</a> <a href="#outparameter">OutParameter</a> <a href="#autoexecute">AutoExecute</a>
72 <br>
73 &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#getone">GetOne</a>
74 <a href="#cachegetone"><i>CacheGetOne</i></a> <a href="#getrow">GetRow</a> <a href="#cachegetrow"><i>CacheGetRow</i></a>
75 <a href="#getall">GetAll</a> <a href="#cachegetall"><i>CacheGetAll</i></a> <a href="#getcol">GetCol</a>
76 <a href="#cachegetcol"><i>CacheGetCol</i></a> <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a> <a href="#cachegetassoc"><i>CacheGetAssoc</i></a> <a href="#replace">Replace</a>
77 <br>
78 &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a>
79 (oci8 only)<br>
80 Generates SQL strings: <a href="#getupdatesql">GetUpdateSQL</a> <a href="#getinsertsql">GetInsertSQL</a>
81 <a href="#concat">Concat</a> <a href="#ifnull">IfNull</a> <a href="#length">length</a> <a href="#random">random</a> <a href="#substr">substr</a>
82 <a href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#param">Param</a> <a href="#OffsetDate">OffsetDate</a> <a href="#SQLDate">SQLDate</a>
83 <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a> <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a>
84 <a href="#binddate">BindDate</a> <a href="#bindtimestamp">BindTimeStamp</a>
85 <br>
86 Blobs: <a href="#updateblob">UpdateBlob</a> <a href="#updateclob">UpdateClob</a>
87 <a href="#updateblobfile">UpdateBlobFile</a> <a href="#blobencode">BlobEncode</a>
88 <a href="#blobdecode">BlobDecode</a><br>
89 Paging/Scrolling: <a href="#pageexecute">PageExecute</a> <a href="#cachepageexecute">CachePageExecute</a><br>
90 Cleanup: <a href="#cacheflush">CacheFlush</a> <a href="#Close">Close</a><br>
91 Transactions: <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans</a> <a href="#completetrans">CompleteTrans</a>
92 <a href="#failtrans">FailTrans</a> <a href="#hasfailedtrans">HasFailedTrans</a>
93 <a href="#begintrans">BeginTrans</a> <a href="#committrans">CommitTrans</a>
94 <a href="#rollbacktrans">RollbackTrans</a> <a href=#SetTransactionMode>SetTransactionMode</a><br>
95 Fetching Data: </font> <font size="2"><a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a><br>
96 Strings: <a href="#concat">concat</a> <a href="#length">length</a> <a href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#quote">quote</a> <a href="#substr">substr</a><br>
97 Dates: <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a> <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a> <a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a>
98 <a href="#binddate">BindDate</a> <a href="#bindtimestamp">BindTimeStamp</a>
99 <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp</a> <a href="#OffsetDate">OffsetDate</a>
100 <a href="#SQLDate">SQLDate</a> <br>
101 Row Management: <a href="#affected_rows">Affected_Rows</a> <a href="#inserted_id">Insert_ID</a> <a href="#rowlock">RowLock</a>
102 <a href="#genid">GenID</a> <a href="#createseq">CreateSequence</a> <a href="#dropseq">DropSequence</a>
103 <br>
104 Error Handling: <a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a> <a href="#errorno">ErrorNo</a>
105 <a href="#metaerror">MetaError</a> <a href="#metaerrormsg">MetaErrorMsg</a> <a href="#ignoreerrors">IgnoreErrors</a><br>
106 Data Dictionary (metadata): <a href="#metadatabases">MetaDatabases</a> <a href="#metatables">MetaTables</a>
107 <a href="#metacolumns">MetaColumns</a> <a href="#metacolumnames">MetaColumnNames</a>
108 <a href="#metaprimarykeys">MetaPrimaryKeys</a> <a href="#metaforeignkeys">MetaForeignKeys</a>
109 <a href="#serverinfo">ServerInfo</a> <br>
110 Statistics and Query-Rewriting: <a href="#logsql">LogSQL</a> <a href="#fnexecute">fnExecute
111 and fnCacheExecute</a><br>
112 </font><font size="2">Deprecated: <a href="#bind">Bind</a> <a href="#blankrecordset">BlankRecordSet</a>
113 <a href="#parameter">Parameter</a></font>
114 <a href="#adorecordSet"><b><br>
115 ADORecordSet</b></a><br>
116 <font size="2">
117 Returns one field: <a href="#fields">Fields</a><br>
118 Returns one row:<a href="#fetchrow">FetchRow</a> <a href="#fetchinto">FetchInto</a>
119 <a href="#fetchobject">FetchObject</a> <a href="#fetchnextobject">FetchNextObject</a>
120 <a href="#fetchobj">FetchObj</a> <a href="#fetchnextobj">FetchNextObj</a>
121 <a href="#getrowassoc">GetRowAssoc</a> <br>
122 Returns all rows:<a href="#getarray">GetArray</a> <a href="#getrows">GetRows</a>
123 <a href="#getassoc">GetAssoc</a><br>
124 Scrolling:<a href="#move">Move</a> <a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a> <a href="#movefirst">MoveFirst</a>
125 <a href="#movelast">MoveLast</a> <a href="#abspos">AbsolutePosition</a> <a href="#currentrow">CurrentRow</a>
126 <a href="#atfirstpage">AtFirstPage</a> <a href="#atlastpage">AtLastPage</a>
127 <a href="#absolutepage">AbsolutePage</a> </font> <font size="2"><br>
128 Menu generation:<a href="#getmenu">GetMenu</a> <a href="#getmenu2">GetMenu2</a><br>
129 Dates:<a href="#userdate">UserDate</a> <a href="#usertimestamp">UserTimeStamp</a>
130 <a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a> <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp<br>
131 </a>Recordset Info:<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a> <a href="#po_recordcount">PO_RecordCount</a>
132 <a href="#nextrecordset">NextRecordSet</a><br>
133 Field Info:<a href="#fieldcount">FieldCount</a> <a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a>
134 <a href="#metatype">MetaType</a><br>
135 Cleanup: <a href="#rsclose">Close</a></font>
136 </p>
137 <p><font size="2"><a href="#rs2html"><b>rs2html</b></a>&nbsp; <a href="#exrs2html">example</a></font><br>
138 <a href="#adodiff">Differences between ADOdb and ADO</a><br>
139 <a href="#driverguide"><b>Database Driver Guide<br>
140 </b></a><b><a href="#changes">Change Log</a></b><br>
141 </p>
142 <h2>Introduction<a name="intro"></a></h2>
143 <p>PHP's database access functions are not standardised. This creates a need for
144 a database class library to hide the differences between the different database
145 API's (encapsulate the differences) so we can easily switch databases. PHP 4.0.5 or later
146 is now required (because we use array-based str_replace).</p>
147 <p>We currently support MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, Sybase SQL Anywhere, Informix,
148 PostgreSQL, FrontBase, SQLite, Interbase (Firebird and Borland variants), Foxpro, Access, ADO, DB2, SAP DB and ODBC.
149 We have had successful reports of connecting to Progress and CacheLite via ODBC. We hope more people
150 will contribute drivers to support other databases.</p>
151 <p>PHP4 supports session variables. You can store your session information using
152 ADOdb for true portability and scalability. See adodb-session.php for more information.</p>
153 <p>Also read <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/adodb/tips_portable_sql.htm">tips_portable_sql.htm</a>
154 for tips on writing
155 portable SQL.</p>
156 <h2>Unique Features of ADOdb<a name="features"></a></h2>
157 <ul>
158 <li><b>Easy for Windows programmers</b> to adapt to because many of the conventions
159 are similar to Microsoft's ADO.</li>
160 <li>Unlike other PHP database classes which focus only on select statements,
161 <b>we provide support code to handle inserts and updates which can be adapted
162 to multiple databases quickly.</b> Methods are provided for date handling,
163 string concatenation and string quoting characters for differing databases.</li>
164 <li>A<b> metatype system </b>is built in so that we can figure out that types
165 such as CHAR, TEXT and STRING are equivalent in different databases.</li>
166 <li><b>Easy to port</b> because all the database dependant code are stored in
167 stub functions. You do not need to port the core logic of the classes.</li>
168 <li><b>Portable table and index creation</b> with the <a href="docs-datadict.htm">datadict</a> classes.
169 </li><li><b>Database performance monitoring and SQL tuning</b> with the <a href="docs-perf.htm">performance monitoring</a> classes.
170 </li><li><b>Database-backed sessions</b> with the <a href="docs-session.htm">session management</a> classes. Supports session expiry notification.
171 <li><b>Object-Relational Mapping</b> using <a href="docs-active-record.htm">ADOdb_Active_Record</a> classes.
172 </li></ul>
173 <h2>How People are using ADOdb<a name="users"></a></h2>
174 Here are some examples of how people are using ADOdb (for a much longer list,
175 visit <a href="http://phplens.com/phpeverywhere/adodb-cool-apps">adodb-cool-apps</a>):
176 <ul>
177 <li><a href="http://phplens.com/">PhpLens</a> is a commercial data grid
178 component that allows both cool Web designers and serious unshaved
179 programmers to develop and maintain databases on the Web easily.
180 Developed by the author of ADOdb.<p>
182 </p></li><li><a href="http://www.interakt.ro/phakt/">PHAkt: PHP Extension for DreamWeaver Ultradev</a> allows you to script PHP in the popular Web page editor. Database handling provided by ADOdb.<p>
184 </p></li><li><a href="http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/%7Erdanyliw/snort/snortacid.html">Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases</a>
185 (ACID): PHP-based analysis engine to search and process a database of
186 security incidents generated by security-related software such as IDSes
187 and firewalls (e.g. Snort, ipchains). By Roman Danyliw.<p>
189 </p></li><li><a href="http://www.postnuke.com/">PostNuke</a> is a very
190 popular free content management system and weblog system. It offers
191 full CSS support, HTML 4.01 transitional compliance throughout, an
192 advanced blocks system, and is fully multi-lingual enabled. <p>
194 </p></li><li><a href="http://www.auto-net.no/easypublish.php?page=index&amp;lang_id=2">EasyPublish CMS</a>
195 is another free content management system for managing information and
196 integrated modules on your internet, intranet- and extranet-sites. From
197 Norway.<p>
199 </p></li><li><a href="http://nola.noguska.com/">NOLA</a> is a full featured accounting, inventory, and job tracking application. It is licensed under the GPL, and developed by Noguska.
200 </li></ul><p>
202 </p><h2>Feature Requests and Bug Reports<a name="bugs"></a></h2>
203 <p>Feature requests and bug reports can be emailed to <a href="mailto:jlim#natsoft.com.my">jlim#natsoft.com.my</a>
204 or posted to the ADOdb Help forums at <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4">http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4</a>.</p>
205 <h2>Installation Guide<a name="install"></a></h2>
206 <p>Make sure you are running PHP 4.0.5 or later.
207 Unpack all the files into a directory accessible by your webserver.</p>
208 <p>To test, try modifying some of the tutorial examples. Make sure you customize
209 the connection settings correctly. You can debug using <i>$db-&gt;debug = true</i> as shown below:</p>
210 <pre>&lt;?php<br> include('adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br> $db = <a href="#adonewconnection">ADONewConnection</a>($dbdriver); # eg 'mysql' or 'postgres'<br> $db-&gt;debug = true;<br> $db-&gt;<a href="#connect">Connect</a>($server, $user, $password, $database);<br> $rs = $db-&gt;<a href="#execute">Execute</a>('select * from some_small_table');<br> print "&lt;pre&gt;";<br> print_r($rs-&gt;<a href="#getrows">GetRows</a>());<br> print "&lt;/pre&gt;";<br>?&gt;</pre>
212 <h3>Minimum Install<a name="mininstall"></a></h3>
213 <p>For developers who want to release a minimal install of ADOdb, you will need:
214 </p><ul>
215 <li>adodb.inc.php
216 </li><li>adodb-lib.inc.php
217 </li><li>adodb-time.inc.php
218 </li><li>drivers/adodb-$database.inc.php
219 </li><li>license.txt (for legal reasons)
220 </li><li>adodb-php4.inc.php
221 </li><li>adodb-iterator.inc.php (php5 functionality)
222 </li></ul>
223 Optional:
224 <ul>
225 <li>adodb-error.inc.php and lang/adodb-$lang.inc.php (if you use MetaError())
226 </li><li>adodb-csvlib.inc.php (if you use cached recordsets - CacheExecute(), etc)
227 </li><li>adodb-exceptions.inc.php and adodb-errorhandler.inc.php (if you use adodb error handler or php5 exceptions).
228 <li>adodb-active-record.inc.php if you use <a href=docs-active-record.htm>Active Records</a>.
229 </li></ul>
231 <h3>Code Initialization Examples<a name="coding"></a></h3>
232 <p>When running ADOdb, at least two files are loaded. First is adodb/adodb.inc.php,
233 which contains all functions used by all database classes. The code specific
234 to a particular database is in the adodb/driver/adodb-????.inc.php file.</p>
235 <a name="adonewconnection"></a>
236 <p>For example, to connect to a mysql database:</p>
237 <pre>include('/path/to/set/here/adodb.inc.php');<br>$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');<br></pre>
238 <p>Whenever you need to connect to a database, you create a Connection object
239 using the <b>ADONewConnection</b>($driver) function.
240 <b>NewADOConnection</b>($driver) is an alternative name for the same function.</p>
242 <p>At this point, you are not connected to the database (no longer true if you pass in a <a href="#dsnsupport">dsn</a>). You will first need to decide
243 whether to use <i>persistent</i> or <i>non-persistent</i> connections. The advantage of <i>persistent</i>
244 connections is that they are faster, as the database connection is never closed (even
245 when you call Close()). <i>Non-persistent </i>connections take up much fewer resources though,
246 reducing the risk of your database and your web-server becoming overloaded.
247 </p><p>For persistent connections,
248 use $conn-&gt;<a href="#pconnect">PConnect()</a>,
249 or $conn-&gt;<a href="#connect">Connect()</a> for non-persistent connections.
250 Some database drivers also support <a href="#nconnect">NConnect()</a>, which forces
251 the creation of a new connection.
253 <a name="connection_gotcha"></a>
254 </p><p><b>Connection Gotcha</b>: If you create two connections, but both use the same userid and password,
255 PHP will share the same connection. This can cause problems if the connections are meant to
256 different databases. The solution is to always use different userid's for different databases,
257 or use NConnect().
259 <a name="dsnsupport"></a>
260 </p><h3>Data Source Name (DSN) Support</h3>
261 <p> Since ADOdb 4.51, you can connect to a database by passing a dsn to NewADOConnection() (or ADONewConnection, which is
262 the same function). The dsn format is:
263 </p><pre> $driver://$username:$password@hostname/$database?options[=value]<br></pre><p>
264 NewADOConnection() calls Connect() or PConnect() internally for you. If the connection fails, false is returned.
265 </p><pre> <font color="#008000"># non-persistent connection</font>
266 $dsn = 'mysql://root:pwd@localhost/mydb';
267 $db = NewADOConnection($dsn);
268 if (!$db) die("Connection failed");
270 <font color="#008000"># no need to call connect/pconnect!</font>
271 $arr = $db-&gt;GetArray("select * from table");
273 <font color="#008000"># persistent connection</font>
274 $dsn2 = 'mysql://root:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist';
275 </pre>
276 <p>
277 If you have special characters such as /:?_ in your dsn, then you need to rawurlencode them first:
278 </p><pre> $pwd = rawurlencode($pwd);<br> $dsn = "mysql://root:$pwd@localhost/mydb";
279 $dsn2=rawurlencode("sybase_ase")."://user:pass@host/path?query";<br></pre>
280 <p>
281 Legal options are:
282 </p><p>
283 <table align="center" border="1"><tbody><tr><td>For all drivers</td><td>
284 'persist', 'persistent', 'debug', 'fetchmode', 'new'
285 </td></tr><tr><td>Interbase/Firebird
286 </td><td>
287 'dialect','charset','buffers','role'
288 </td></tr><tr><td>M'soft ADO</td><td>
289 'charpage'
291 </td></tr><tr><td>MySQL</td><td>
292 'clientflags'
293 </td></tr><tr><td>MySQLi</td><td>
294 'port', 'socket', 'clientflags'
295 </td></tr><tr><td>Oci8</td><td>
296 'nls_date_format','charset'
297 </td></tr></tbody></table>
298 </p><p>
299 For all drivers, when the options <i>persist</i> or <i>persistent</i> are set, a persistent connection is forced; similarly, when <i>new</i> is set, then
300 a new connection will be created using NConnect if the underlying driver supports it.
301 The <i>debug</i> option enables debugging. The <i>fetchmode</i> calls <a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode()</a>.
302 If no value is defined for an option, then the value is set to 1.
303 </p><p>
304 ADOdb DSN's are compatible with version 1.0 of PEAR DB's DSN format.
305 <a name="connect_ex">
306 </a></p><h3><a name="connect_ex">Examples of Connecting to Databases</a></h3>
307 <h4><a name="connect_ex">MySQL and Most Other Database Drivers</a></h4>
308 <p><a name="connect_ex">MySQL connections are very straightforward, and the parameters are identical
309 to mysql_connect:</a></p>
310 <pre><a name="connect_ex"> $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); <br> $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br> <br> <font color="#008000"># or dsn </font>
311 $dsn = 'mysql://user:pwd@localhost/mydb';
312 $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect()
314 <font color="#008000"># or persistent dsn</font>
315 $dsn = 'mysql://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist';
316 $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for PConnect()
318 <font color="#008000"># a more complex example:</font>
319 $pwd = urlencode($pwd);
321 $dsn = "mysql://user:$pwd@localhost/mydb?persist&amp;clientflags=$flags";
322 $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for PConnect()
323 </a></pre>
324 <p><a name="connect_ex"> For most drivers, you can use the standard function: Connect($server, $user, $password, $database), or
325 a </a><a href="dsnsupport">DSN</a> since ADOdb 4.51. Exceptions to this are listed below.
326 </p>
327 <a name=pdo>
328 <h4>PDO</h4>
329 <p>PDO, which only works with PHP5, accepts a driver specific connection string:
330 <pre>
331 $conn =& NewADConnection('pdo');
332 $conn->Connect('mysql:host=localhost',$user,$pwd,$mydb);
333 $conn->Connect('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=mydb',$user,$pwd);
334 $conn->Connect("mysql:host=localhost;dbname=mydb;username=$user;password=$pwd");
335 </pre>
336 <p>The DSN mechanism is also supported:
337 <pre>
338 $conn =& NewADConnection("pdo_mysql://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist"); # persist is optional
339 </pre>
340 <h4>PostgreSQL</h4>
341 <p>PostgreSQL 7 and 8 accepts connections using: </p>
342 <p>a. the standard connection string:</p>
343 <pre> $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('postgres'); <br> $conn-&gt;PConnect('host=localhost port=5432 dbname=mary');</pre>
344 <p> b. the classical 4 parameters:</p>
345 <pre> $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br> </pre>
346 <p>c. dsn:
347 </p><pre> $dsn = 'postgres://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist'; # persist is optional
348 $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect/PConnect<br></pre>
349 <a name="ldap"></a>
351 <h4>LDAP</h4>
352 <p>Here is an example of querying a LDAP server. Thanks to Josh Eldridge for the driver and this example:
353 </p><pre>
354 require('/path/to/adodb.inc.php');
356 /* Make sure to set this BEFORE calling Connect() */
365 );
366 $host = 'ldap.baylor.edu';
367 $ldapbase = 'ou=People,o=Baylor University,c=US';
369 $ldap = NewADOConnection( 'ldap' );
370 $ldap->Connect( $host, $user_name='', $password='', $ldapbase );
372 echo "&lt;pre>";
374 print_r( $ldap->ServerInfo() );
375 $ldap->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);
376 $userName = 'eldridge';
377 $filter="(|(CN=$userName*)(sn=$userName*)(givenname=$userName*)(uid=$userName*))";
379 $rs = $ldap->Execute( $filter );
380 if ($rs)
381 while ($arr = $rs->FetchRow()) {
382 print_r($arr);
383 }
385 $rs = $ldap->Execute( $filter );
386 if ($rs)
387 while (!$rs->EOF) {
388 print_r($rs->fields);
389 $rs->MoveNext();
390 }
392 print_r( $ldap->GetArray( $filter ) );
393 print_r( $ldap->GetRow( $filter ) );
395 $ldap->Close();
396 echo "&lt;/pre>";
397 </pre>
398 <p>Using DSN:
399 <pre>
400 $dsn = "ldap://ldap.baylor.edu/ou=People,o=Baylor University,c=US";
401 $db = NewADOConnection($dsn);
402 </pre>
403 <h4>Interbase/Firebird</h4>
404 You define the database in the $host parameter:
405 <pre> $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('ibase'); <br> $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost:c:\ibase\employee.gdb','sysdba','masterkey');<br></pre>
406 <p>Or dsn:
407 </p><pre> $dsn = 'firebird://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist&amp;dialect=3'; # persist is optional<br> $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect/PConnect<br></pre>
408 <h4>SQLite</h4>
409 Sqlite will create the database file if it does not exist.
410 <pre> $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('sqlite');
411 $conn-&gt;PConnect('c:\path\to\sqlite.db'); # sqlite will create if does not exist<br></pre>
412 <p>Or dsn:
413 </p><pre> $path = urlencode('c:\path\to\sqlite.db');
414 $dsn = "sqlite://$path/?persist"; # persist is optional
415 $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect/PConnect<br></pre>
416 <h4>Oracle (oci8)</h4>
417 <p>With oci8, you can connect in multiple ways. Note that oci8 works fine with
418 newer versions of the Oracle, eg. 9i and 10g.</p>
419 <p>a. PHP and Oracle reside on the same machine, use default SID.</p>
420 <pre> $conn-&gt;Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger');</pre>
421 <p>b. TNS Name defined in tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES), eg. 'myTNS'</p>
422 <pre> $conn-&gt;PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', 'myTNS');</pre>
423 <p>or</p>
424 <pre> $conn-&gt;PConnect('myTNS', 'scott', 'tiger');</pre>
425 <p>c. Host Address and SID</p>
426 <pre>
427 $conn->connectSID = true;
428 $conn-&gt;Connect('', 'scott', 'tiger', 'SID');</pre>
429 <p>d. Host Address and Service Name</p>
430 <pre> $conn-&gt;Connect('', 'scott', 'tiger', 'servicename');</pre>
431 <p>e. Oracle connection string:
432 </p><pre> $cstr = "(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=$host)(PORT=$port))<br> (CONNECT_DATA=(SID=$sid)))";<br> $conn-&gt;Connect($cstr, 'scott', 'tiger');<br></pre>
433 <p>f. ADOdb dsn:
434 </p><pre> $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@tnsname/?persist'; # persist is optional<br> $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect/PConnect<br> <br> $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@host/sid';<br> $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<br> <br> $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@/'; # oracle on local machine<br> $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<br></pre>
435 <p>You can also set the charSet for Oracle 9.2 and later, supported since PHP 4.3.2, ADOdb 4.54:
436 </p><pre> $conn-&gt;charSet = 'we8iso8859p1';<br> $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br> <br> # or<br> $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@tnsname/?charset=WE8MSWIN1252';<br> $db = ADONewConnection($dsn);<br></pre>
437 <a name="dsnless"></a>
438 <h4>DSN-less ODBC ( Access, MSSQL and DB2 examples)</h4>
439 <p>ODBC DSN's can be created in the ODBC control panel, or you can use a DSN-less
440 connection.To use DSN-less connections with ODBC you need PHP 4.3 or later.
441 </p>
442 <p>For Microsoft Access:</p>
443 <pre> $db =&amp; ADONewConnection('access');<br> $dsn = <strong>"Driver={Microsoft Access Driver (*.mdb)};Dbq=d:\\northwind.mdb;Uid=Admin;Pwd=;";</strong>
444 $db-&gt;Connect($dsn);
445 </pre>
446 For Microsoft SQL Server:
447 <pre> $db =&amp; ADONewConnection('odbc_mssql');<br> $dsn = <strong>"Driver={SQL Server};Server=localhost;Database=northwind;"</strong>;<br> $db-&gt;Connect($dsn,'userid','password');<br></pre>
448 or if you prefer to use the mssql extension (which is limited to mssql 6.5 functionality):
449 <pre> $db =&amp; ADONewConnection('mssql');<br> $db-&gt;Execute('localhost', 'userid', 'password', 'northwind');<br></pre>
450 For DB2:
451 <pre>
452 $dbms = 'db2'; # or 'odbc_db2' if db2 extension not available
453 $db =&amp; ADONewConnection($dbms);
454 $dsn = "driver={IBM db2 odbc DRIVER};Database=sample;hostname=localhost;port=50000;protocol=TCPIP;".
455 "uid=root; pwd=secret";<br> $db-&gt;Connect($dsn);
456 </pre>
457 <b>DSN-less Connections with ADO</b><br>
458 If you are using versions of PHP earlier than PHP 4.3.0, DSN-less connections
459 only work with Microsoft's ADO, which is Microsoft's COM based API. An example
460 using the ADOdb library and Microsoft's ADO:
461 <pre>&lt;?php<br> include('adodb.inc.php'); <br> $db = &amp;ADONewConnection("ado_mssql");<br> print "&lt;h1&gt;Connecting DSN-less $db-&gt;databaseType...&lt;/h1&gt;";<br> <br> <b>$myDSN="PROVIDER=MSDASQL;DRIVER={SQL Server};"<br> . "SERVER=flipper;DATABASE=ai;UID=sa;PWD=;" ;</b>
462 $db-&gt;Connect($myDSN);
464 $rs = $db-&gt;Execute("select * from table");
465 $arr = $rs-&gt;GetArray();
466 print_r($arr);
467 ?&gt;
468 </pre><a name="speed"></a>
469 <h2>High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips</h2>
470 <p>ADOdb is a big class library, yet it <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/adodb/">consistently beats</a> all other PHP class
471 libraries in performance. This is because it is designed in a layered fashion,
472 like an onion, with the fastest functions in the innermost layer. Stick to the
473 following functions for best performance:</p>
474 <table align="center" border="1" width="40%">
475 <tbody><tr>
476 <td><div align="center"><b>Innermost Layer</b></div></td>
477 </tr>
478 <tr>
479 <td><p align="center">Connect, PConnect, NConnect<br>
480 Execute, CacheExecute<br>
481 SelectLimit, CacheSelectLimit<br>
482 MoveNext, Close <br>
483 qstr, Affected_Rows, Insert_ID</p></td>
484 </tr>
485 </tbody></table>
486 <p>The fastest way to access the field data is by accessing the array $recordset-&gt;fields
487 directly. Also set the global variables <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>
488 = ADODB_FETCH_NUM, and (for oci8, ibase/firebird and odbc) <a href="#adodb_countrecs">$ADODB_COUNTRECS</a> = false
489 before you connect to your database.</p>
490 <p>Consider using bind parameters if your database supports it, as it improves
491 query plan reuse. Use ADOdb's performance tuning system to identify bottlenecks
492 quickly. At the time of writing (Dec 2003), this means oci8 and odbc drivers.</p>
493 <p>Lastly make sure you have a PHP accelerator cache installed such as APC, Turck
494 MMCache, Zend Accelerator or ionCube.</p>
495 <p>Some examples:</p>
496 <table align="center" border="1"><tbody><tr><td><b>Fastest data retrieval using PHP</b></td><td><b>Fastest data retrieval using ADOdb extension</b></td></tr>
497 <tr><td>
498 <pre>$rs =&amp; $rs-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {<br> var_dump($rs-&gt;fields);<br> $rs-&gt;MoveNext();<br>}</pre></td><td>
499 <pre>$rs =&amp; $rs-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>$array = adodb_getall($rs);<br>var_dump($array);<br><br><br></pre></td></tr></tbody></table>
500 <p><b>Advanced Tips</b>
501 </p><p>If you have the <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#extension">ADOdb C extension</a> installed,
502 you can replace your calls to $rs-&gt;MoveNext() with adodb_movenext($rs).
503 This doubles the speed of this operation. For retrieving entire recordsets at once,
504 use GetArray(), which uses the high speed extension function adodb_getall($rs) internally.
505 </p><p>Execute() is the default way to run queries. You can use the low-level functions _Execute() and _query()
506 to reduce query overhead. Both these functions share the same parameters as Execute().
507 </p><p>If you do not have any bind parameters or your database supports
508 binding (without emulation),
509 then you can call _Execute() directly. Calling this function bypasses
510 bind emulation. Debugging is still supported in _Execute().
511 </p><p>If you do not require debugging facilities nor emulated
512 binding, and do not require a recordset to be returned, then you can
513 call _query. This is great for inserts, updates and deletes. Calling
514 this function
515 bypasses emulated binding, debugging, and recordset handling. Either
516 the resultid, true or false are returned by _query(). </p><p>For Informix, you can disable scrollable cursors with $db-&gt;cursorType = 0.
517 </p><p><a name="hack"></a> </p>
518 <h2>Hacking ADOdb Safely</h2>
519 <p>You might want to modify ADOdb for your own purposes. Luckily you can
520 still maintain backward compatibility by sub-classing ADOdb and using the $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION
521 variable. $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION allows you to override the behaviour of ADONewConnection().
522 ADOConnection() checks for this variable and will call
523 the function-name stored in this variable if it is defined.
524 </p><p>In the following example, new functionality for the connection object
525 is placed in the <i>hack_mysql</i> and <i>hack_postgres7</i> classes. The recordset class naming convention
526 can be controlled using $rsPrefix. Here we set it to 'hack_rs_', which will make ADOdb use
527 <i>hack_rs_mysql</i> and <i>hack_rs_postgres7</i> as the recordset classes.
530 </p><pre>class hack_mysql extends adodb_mysql {<br>var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';<br> /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>class hack_rs_mysql extends ADORecordSet_mysql {<br> /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>class hack_postgres7 extends adodb_postgres7 {<br>var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';<br> /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>class hack_rs_postgres7 extends ADORecordSet_postgres7 {<br> /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>$ADODB_NEWCONNECTION = 'hack_factory';<br><br>function&amp; hack_factory($driver)<br>{<br> if ($driver !== 'mysql' &amp;&amp; $driver !== 'postgres7') return false;<br> <br> $driver = 'hack_'.$driver;<br> $obj = new $driver();<br> return $obj;<br>}<br><br>include_once('adodb.inc.php');<br></pre>
531 <p></p><p>Don't forget to call the constructor of the parent class in
532 your constructor. If you want to use the default ADOdb drivers return
533 false in the above hack_factory() function.
534 <a name="php5"></a>
535 </p><h2>PHP5 Features</h2>
536 ADOdb 4.02 or later will transparently determine which version of PHP you are using.
537 If PHP5 is detected, the following features become available:
538 <ul>
540 <li><b>PDO</b>: PDO drivers are available. See the <a href=#pdo>connection examples</a>. Currently PDO drivers are
541 not as powerful as native drivers, and should be treated as experimental.<br><br>
542 <a name="php5iterators"></a>
543 <li><b>Foreach iterators</b>: This is a very natural way of going through a recordset:
544 <pre> $ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;<br> $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br> foreach($rs as $k =&gt; $row) {<br> echo "r1=".$row[0]." r2=".$row[1]."&lt;br&gt;";<br> }<br></pre>
545 <p>
546 <a name="php5exceptions"></a>
547 </p></li><li><b>Exceptions</b>: Just include <i>adodb-exceptions.inc.php</i> and you can now
548 catch exceptions on errors as they occur.
549 <pre> <b>include("../adodb-exceptions.inc.php");</b> <br> include("../adodb.inc.php"); <br> try { <br> $db = NewADOConnection("oci8"); <br> $db-&gt;Connect('','scott','bad-password'); <br> } catch (exception $e) { <br> var_dump($e); <br> adodb_backtrace($e-&gt;gettrace());<br> } <br></pre>
550 <p>Note that reaching EOF is <b>not</b> considered an error nor an exception.
551 </p></li></ul>
552 <h3><a name="drivers"></a>Databases Supported</h3>
553 The <i>name</i> below is the value you pass to NewADOConnection($name) to create a connection object for that database.
554 <p>
555 </p><p>
556 </p><table border="1" width="100%">
557 <tbody><tr valign="top">
558 <td><b>Name</b></td>
559 <td><b>Tested</b></td>
560 <td><b>Database</b></td>
561 <td><b><font size="2">RecordCount() usable</font></b></td>
562 <td><b>Prerequisites</b></td>
563 <td><b>Operating Systems</b></td>
564 </tr>
565 <tr valign="top">
566 <td><b><font size="2">access</font></b></td>
567 <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
568 <td><font size="2">Microsoft Access/Jet. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</font></td>
569 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
570 <td><font size="2">ODBC </font></td>
571 <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
572 </tr>
573 <tr valign="top">
574 <td><b><font size="2">ado</font></b></td>
575 <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
576 <td><p><font size="2">Generic ADO, not tuned for specific databases. Allows
577 DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider. This
578 is the base class for all ado drivers.</font></p>
579 <p><font size="2">You can set $db-&gt;codePage before connecting.</font></p></td>
580 <td><font size="2">? depends on database</font></td>
581 <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
582 <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
583 </tr>
584 <tr valign="top">
585 <td><b><font size="2">ado_access</font></b></td>
586 <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
587 <td><font size="2">Microsoft Access/Jet using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections.
588 For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</font></td>
589 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
590 <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
591 <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
592 </tr>
593 <tr valign="top">
594 <td><b><font size="2">ado_mssql</font></b></td>
595 <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
596 <td><font size="2">Microsoft SQL Server using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections.
597 For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</font></td>
598 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
599 <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
600 <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
601 </tr>
602 <tr valign="top">
603 <td height="54"><b><font size="2">db2</font></b></td>
604 <td height="54"><font size="2">C</font></td>
605 <td height="54"><font size="2">Uses PHP's db2-specific extension for better performance.</font></td>
606 <td height="54"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
607 <td height="54"><font size="2">DB2 CLI/ODBC interface</font></td>
608 <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. Requires IBM DB2 Universal Database client.</font></p></td>
609 </tr>
610 <tr valign="top">
611 <td height="54"><b><font size="2">odbc_db2</font></b></td>
612 <td height="54"><font size="2">C</font></td>
613 <td height="54"><font size="2">Connects to DB2 using generic ODBC extension.</font></td>
614 <td height="54"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
615 <td height="54"><font size="2">DB2 CLI/ODBC interface</font></td>
616 <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://www.faqts.com/knowledge_base/view.phtml/aid/6283/fid/14">Unix
617 install hints</a>. I have had reports that the $host and $database params have to be reversed in Connect() when using the CLI interface.</font></p></td>
618 </tr>
619 <tr valign="top">
620 <td><b><font size="2">vfp</font></b></td>
621 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
622 <td><font size="2">Microsoft Visual FoxPro. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</font></td>
623 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
624 <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
625 <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
626 </tr>
627 <tr valign="top">
628 <td><b><font size="2">fbsql</font></b></td>
629 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
630 <td><font size="2">FrontBase. </font></td>
631 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
632 <td><font size="2">?</font></td>
633 <td> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></p></td>
634 </tr>
635 <tr valign="top">
636 <td><b><font size="2">ibase</font></b></td>
637 <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
638 <td><font size="2">Interbase 6 or earlier. Some users report you might need
639 to use this<br>
640 $db-&gt;PConnect('localhost:c:/ibase/employee.gdb', "sysdba", "masterkey")
641 to connect. Lacks Affected_Rows currently.<br>
642 <br>
643 You can set $db-&gt;role, $db-&gt;dialect, $db-&gt;buffers and $db-&gt;charSet before connecting.</font></td>
644 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
645 <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
646 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
647 </tr>
648 <tr valign="top">
649 <td><b><i><font size="2">firebird</font></i></b></td>
650 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
651 <td><font size="2">Firebird version of interbase.</font></td>
652 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
653 <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
654 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
655 </tr>
656 <tr valign="top">
657 <td><b><i><font size="2">borland_ibase</font></i></b></td>
658 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
659 <td><font size="2">Borland version of Interbase 6.5 or later. Very sad that
660 the forks differ.</font></td>
661 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
662 <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
663 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
664 </tr>
666 <tr valign="top">
667 <td><b><font size="2">informix</font></b></td>
668 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
669 <td><font size="2">Generic informix driver. Use this if you are using Informix 7.3 or later.</font></td>
670 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
671 <td><font size="2">Informix client</font></td>
672 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
673 </tr>
674 <tr valign="top">
675 <td><b><font size="2">informix72</font></b></td>
676 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
677 <td><font size="2"> Informix databases before Informix 7.3 that do no support
678 SELECT FIRST.</font></td>
679 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
680 <td><font size="2">Informix client</font></td>
681 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
682 </tr>
683 <tr valign="top">
684 <td><b><font size="2">ldap</font></b></td>
685 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
686 <td><font size="2">LDAP driver. See this example for usage information.</font></td>
687 <td>&nbsp;</td>
688 <td><font size="2">LDAP extension</font></td>
689 <td><font size="2">?</font></td>
690 </tr>
691 <tr valign="top">
692 <td height="73"><b><font size="2">mssql</font></b></td>
693 <td height="73"><font size="2">A</font></td>
694 <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Microsoft SQL Server 7 and later. Works
695 with Microsoft SQL Server 2000 also. Note that date formating is problematic
696 with this driver. For example, the PHP mssql extension does not return
697 the seconds for datetime!</font></p></td>
698 <td height="73"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
699 <td height="73"><font size="2">Mssql client</font></td>
700 <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <br>
701 <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3">Unix install
702 howto</a> and <a href="http://linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=6636&amp;mode=thread&amp;order=0">another
703 one</a>. </font></p></td>
704 </tr>
705 <tr valign="top">
706 <td height="73"><b><font size="2">mssqlpo</font></b></td>
707 <td height="73"><font size="2">A</font></td>
708 <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Portable mssql driver. Identical to above
709 mssql driver, except that '||', the concatenation operator, is converted
710 to '+'. Useful for porting scripts from most other sql variants that use
711 ||.</font></p></td>
712 <td height="73"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
713 <td height="73"><font size="2">Mssql client</font></td>
714 <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3"><br>
715 Unix install howto</a>.</font></p></td>
716 </tr>
717 <tr valign="top">
718 <td><b><font size="2">mysql</font></b></td>
719 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
720 <td><font size="2">MySQL without transaction support. You can also set $db-&gt;clientFlags
721 before connecting.</font></td>
722 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
723 <td><font size="2">MySQL client</font></td>
724 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
725 </tr>
726 <tr valign="top">
727 <td><font size="2"><b>mysqlt</b> or <b>maxsql</b></font></td>
728 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
729 <td> <p><font size="2">MySQL with transaction support. We recommend using
730 || as the concat operator for best portability. This can be done by running
731 MySQL using: <br>
732 <i>mysqld --ansi</i> or <i>mysqld --sql-mode=PIPES_AS_CONCAT</i></font></p></td>
733 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
734 <td><font size="2">MySQL client</font></td>
735 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
736 </tr>
737 <tr valign="top">
738 <td><b><font size="2">oci8</font></b></td>
739 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
740 <td><font size="2">Oracle 8/9. Has more functionality than <i>oracle</i> driver
741 (eg. Affected_Rows). You might have to putenv('ORACLE_HOME=...') before
742 Connect/PConnect. </font> <p><font size="2"> There are 2 ways of connecting
743 - with server IP and service name: <br>
744 <i>PConnect('serverip:1521','scott','tiger','service'</i>)<br>
745 or using an entry in TNSNAMES.ORA or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES: <br>
746 <i>PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname)</i>. </font>
747 </p><p><font size="2">Since 2.31, we support Oracle REF cursor variables directly
748 (see <a href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a>).</font> </p></td>
749 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
750 <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
751 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
752 </tr>
753 <tr valign="top">
754 <td><b><font size="2">oci805</font></b></td>
755 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
756 <td><font size="2">Supports reduced Oracle functionality for Oracle 8.0.5.
757 SelectLimit is not as efficient as in the oci8 or oci8po drivers.</font></td>
758 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
759 <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
760 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
761 </tr>
762 <tr valign="top">
763 <td><b><font size="2">oci8po</font></b></td>
764 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
765 <td><font size="2">Oracle 8/9 portable driver. This is nearly identical with
766 the oci8 driver except (a) bind variables in Prepare() use the ? convention,
767 instead of :bindvar, (b) field names use the more common PHP convention
768 of lowercase names. </font> <p><font size="2">Use this driver if porting
769 from other databases is important. Otherwise the oci8 driver offers better
770 performance. </font> </p></td>
771 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
772 <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
773 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
774 </tr>
775 <tr valign="top">
776 <td><b><font size="2">odbc</font></b></td>
777 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
778 <td><font size="2">Generic ODBC, not tuned for specific databases. To connect,
779 use <br>
780 PConnect('DSN','user','pwd'). This is the base class for all odbc derived
781 drivers.</font></td>
782 <td><font size="2">? depends on database</font></td>
783 <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
784 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3?page=4">Unix
785 hints.</a></font></td>
786 </tr>
787 <tr valign="top">
788 <td><b><font size="2">odbc_mssql</font></b></td>
789 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
790 <td><font size="2">Uses ODBC to connect to MSSQL</font></td>
791 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
792 <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
793 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
794 </tr>
795 <tr valign="top">
796 <td><b><font size="2">odbc_oracle</font></b></td>
797 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
798 <td><font size="2">Uses ODBC to connect to Oracle</font></td>
799 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
800 <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
801 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
802 </tr>
804 <tr valign="top">
805 <td><b><font size="2">odbtp</font></b></td>
806 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
807 <td><font size="2">Generic odbtp driver. <a href="http://odbtp.sourceforge.net/">Odbtp</a> is a software for
808 accessing Windows ODBC data sources from other operating systems.</font></td>
809 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
810 <td><font size="2">odbtp</font></td>
811 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
812 </tr>
813 <tr valign="top">
814 <td><b><font size="2">odbtp_unicode</font></b></td>
815 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
816 <td><font size="2">Odtbp with unicode support</font></td>
817 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
818 <td><font size="2">odbtp</font></td>
819 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
820 </tr>
821 <tr valign="top">
822 <td height="34"><b><font size="2">oracle</font></b></td>
823 <td height="34"><font size="2">C</font></td>
824 <td height="34"><font size="2">Implements old Oracle 7 client API. Use oci8
825 driver if possible for better performance.</font></td>
826 <td height="34"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
827 <td height="34"><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
828 <td height="34"><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
829 </tr>
830 <tr valign="top">
831 <td height="34"><b><font size="2">netezza</font></b></td>
832 <td height="34"><font size="2">C</font></td>
833 <td height="34"><font size="2">Netezza driver. Netezza is based on postgres code-base.</font></td>
834 <td height="34"><font size="2">Y</font></td>
835 <td height="34"><font size="2">?</font></td>
836 <td height="34"><font size="2">?</font></td>
837 </tr>
838 <tr valign="top">
839 <td><b><font size="2">pdo</font></b></td>
840 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
841 <td><font size="2">Generic PDO driver for PHP5. </font></td>
842 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
843 <td><font size="2">PDO extension and database specific drivers</font></td>
844 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
845 </tr>
846 <tr valign="top">
847 <td><b><font size="2">postgres</font></b></td>
848 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
849 <td><font size="2">Generic PostgreSQL driver. Currently identical to postgres7
850 driver.</font></td>
851 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
852 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
853 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
854 </tr>
855 <tr valign="top">
856 <td><b><font size="2">postgres64</font></b></td>
857 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
858 <td><font size="2">For PostgreSQL 6.4 and earlier which does not support LIMIT
859 internally.</font></td>
860 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
861 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
862 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
863 </tr>
864 <tr valign="top">
865 <td><b><font size="2">postgres7</font></b></td>
866 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
867 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL which supports LIMIT and other version 7 functionality.</font></td>
868 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
869 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
870 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
871 </tr>
872 <tr valign="top">
873 <td><b><font size="2">postgres8</font></b></td>
874 <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
875 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL which supports version 8 functionality.</font></td>
876 <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
877 <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
878 <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
879 </tr>
880 <tr valign="top">
881 <td><b><font size="2">sapdb</font></b></td>
882 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
883 <td><font size="2">SAP DB. Should work reliably as based on ODBC driver.</font></td>
884 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
885 <td><font size="2">SAP ODBC client</font></td>
886 <td> <p><font size="2">?</font></p></td>
887 </tr>
888 <tr valign="top">
889 <td><b><font size="2">sqlanywhere</font></b></td>
890 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
891 <td><font size="2">Sybase SQL Anywhere. Should work reliably as based on ODBC
892 driver.</font></td>
893 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
894 <td><font size="2">SQL Anywhere ODBC client</font></td>
895 <td> <p><font size="2">?</font></p></td>
896 </tr>
897 <tr valign="top">
898 <td height="54"><b><font size="2">sqlite</font></b></td>
899 <td height="54"><font size="2">B</font></td>
900 <td height="54"><font size="2">SQLite.</font></td>
901 <td height="54"><font size="2">Y</font></td>
902 <td height="54"><font size="2">-</font></td>
903 <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
904 </tr>
905 <tr valign="top">
906 <td height="54"><b><font size="2">sqlitepo</font></b></td>
907 <td height="54"><font size="2">B</font></td>
908 <td height="54"><font size="2">Portable SQLite driver. This is because assoc mode does not work like other drivers in sqlite.
909 Namely, when selecting (joining) multiple tables, the table
910 names are included in the assoc keys in the "sqlite" driver.</font><p>
911 <font size="2"> In "sqlitepo" driver, the table names are stripped from the returned column names.
912 When this results in a conflict, the first field get preference.
913 </font></p></td>
914 <td height="54"><font size="2">Y</font></td>
915 <td height="54"><font size="2">-</font></td>
916 <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
917 </tr>
920 <tr valign="top">
921 <td><b><font size="2">sybase</font></b></td>
922 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
923 <td><font size="2">Sybase. </font></td>
924 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
925 <td><font size="2">Sybase client</font></td>
926 <td> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
927 </tr>
929 <tr valign="top">
930 <td><b><font size="2">sybase_ase</font></b></td>
931 <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
932 <td><font size="2">Sybase ASE. </font></td>
933 <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
934 <td><font size="2">Sybase client</font></td>
935 <td> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
936 </tr>
937 </tbody></table>
939 <p></p><p>The "Tested" column indicates how extensively the code has been tested
940 and used. <br>
941 A = well tested and used by many people<br>
942 B = tested and usable, but some features might not be implemented<br>
943 C = user contributed or experimental driver. Might not fully support all of
944 the latest features of ADOdb. </p>
945 <p>The column "RecordCount() usable" indicates whether RecordCount()
946 return the number of rows, or returns -1 when a SELECT statement is executed.
947 If this column displays Y/N then the RecordCount() is emulated when the global
948 variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS=true (this is the default). Note that for large recordsets,
949 it might be better to disable RecordCount() emulation because substantial amounts
950 of memory are required to cache the recordset for counting. Also there is a
951 speed penalty of 40-50% if emulation is required. This is emulated in most databases
952 except for PostgreSQL and MySQL. This variable is checked every time a query
953 is executed, so you can selectively choose which recordsets to count.</p>
954 <p>
955 </p><hr />
956 <h1>Tutorials<a name="quickstart"></a></h1>
957 <h3>Example 1: Select Statement<a name="ex1"></a></h3>
958 <p>Task: Connect to the Access Northwind DSN, display the first 2 columns of each
959 row.</p>
960 <p>In this example, we create a ADOConnection object, which represents the connection
961 to the database. The connection is initiated with <a href="#pconnect"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">PConnect</font></a>,
962 which is a persistent connection. Whenever we want to query the database, we
963 call the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection.<a href="#execute">Execute</a>()</font>
964 function. This returns an ADORecordSet object which is actually a cursor that
965 holds the current row in the array <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">fields[]</font>.
966 We use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font>
967 to move from row to row.</p>
968 <p>NB: A useful function that is not used in this example is <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#selectlimit">SelectLimit</a></font>,
969 which allows us to limit the number of rows shown.
970 </p><pre>&lt;?<br><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind DSN<br>$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Execute('select * from products');<br>if (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>) <br> print $<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;ErrorMsg();<br>else<br><b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) {<br> <b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';<br> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();<br>}</font><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">
972 $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br></font>
973 ?&gt;
974 </pre>
975 <p>The $<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">recordSet</font> returned stores
976 the current row in the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;fields</font>
977 array, indexed by column number (starting from zero). We use the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font>
978 function to move to the next row. The <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">EOF</font>
979 property is set to true when end-of-file is reached. If an error occurs in Execute(),
980 we return false instead of a recordset.</p>
981 <p>The <code>$recordSet-&gt;fields[]</code> array is generated by the PHP database
982 extension. Some database extensions only index by number and do not index the
983 array by field name. To force indexing by name - that is associative arrays
984 - use the SetFetchMode function. Each recordset saves and uses whatever fetch
985 mode was set when the recordset was created in Execute() or SelectLimit().
986 </p><pre> $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);<br> $rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);<br> $rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i>
987 print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i>
988 </pre>
989 <p> </p>
990 <p>To get the number of rows in the select statement, you can use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a>()</font>.
991 Note that it can return -1 if the number of rows returned cannot be determined.</p>
992 <h3>Example 2: Advanced Select with Field Objects<a name="ex2"></a></h3>
993 <p>Select a table, display the first two columns. If the second column is a date
994 or timestamp, reformat the date to US format.</p>
995 <pre>&lt;?<br><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br>$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Execute('select CustomerID,OrderDate from Orders');<br>if (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>) <br> print $<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;ErrorMsg();<br>else<br><b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) {<br> $<font color="#660000">fld</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;FetchField</b></font><font color="#006600">(</font>1<font color="#006600">);</font>
996 $<font color="#660000">type</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;MetaType</b></font>($fld-&gt;type);<br><br> <b>if</b> ( $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'D' || $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'T') <br> <b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.<br> <b><font color="#336600">$</font></b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b><font color="#336600">-&gt;UserDate</font></b>($<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1],'<b>m/d/Y</b>').'&lt;BR&gt;';<br> <b>else </b>
997 <b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';<br><br> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();<br>}</font><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">
998 $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br></font>
999 ?&gt;
1000 </pre>
1001 <p>In this example, we check the field type of the second column using <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a>().</font>
1002 This returns an object with at least 3 fields.</p>
1003 <ul>
1004 <li><b>name</b>: name of column</li>
1005 <li> <b>type</b>: native field type of column</li>
1006 <li> <b>max_length</b>: maximum length of field. Some databases such as MySQL
1007 do not return the maximum length of the field correctly. In these cases max_length
1008 will be set to -1.</li>
1009 </ul>
1010 <p>We then use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font>
1011 to translate the native type to a <i>generic</i> type. Currently the following
1012 <i>generic</i> types are defined:</p>
1013 <ul>
1014 <li><b>C</b>: character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type="text"&gt;
1015 tag.</li>
1016 <li><b>X</b>: TeXt, large text fields that should be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
1017 <li><b>B</b>: Blobs, or Binary Large Objects. Typically images.
1018 </li><li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
1019 <li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
1020 <li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
1021 <li><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer field</li>
1022 <li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes autoincrement, numeric, floating point,
1023 real and integer. </li>
1024 <li><b>R</b>: Serial field. Includes serial, autoincrement integers. This works
1025 for selected databases. </li>
1026 </ul>
1027 <p>If the metatype is of type date or timestamp, then we print it using the user
1028 defined date format with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#userdate">UserDate</a>(),</font>
1029 which converts the PHP SQL date string format to a user defined one. Another
1030 use for <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font>
1031 is data validation before doing an SQL insert or update.</p>
1032 <h3>Example 3: Inserting<a name="ex3"></a></h3>
1033 <p>Insert a row to the Orders table containing dates and strings that need to
1034 be quoted before they can be accepted by the database, eg: the single-quote
1035 in the word <i>John's</i>.</p>
1036 <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection<br><br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br>$<font color="#660000">shipto</font> = <font color="#006600"><b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b></font>("<i>John's Old Shoppe</i>");<br><br>$<font color="#660000">sql</font> = "insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) ";<br>$<font color="#660000">sql</font> .= "values ('ANATR',2,".<b><font color="#006600">$conn-&gt;DBDate(</font>time()<font color="#006600">)</font></b><font color="#006600">.</font>",$<font color="#660000">shipto</font>)";<br><br><b>if</b> ($<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($<font color="#660000">sql</font>) <font color="#336600"><b>=== false</b></font>) {<br> <b>print</b> 'error inserting: '.<font color="#336600"><b>$conn-&gt;ErrorMsg()</b></font>.'&lt;BR&gt;';<br>}<br>?&gt;<br></pre>
1037 <p>In this example, we see the advanced date and quote handling facilities of
1038 ADOdb. The unix timestamp (which is a long integer) is appropriately formated
1039 for Access with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>()</font>,
1040 and the right escape character is used for quoting the <i>John's Old Shoppe</i>,
1041 which is<b> </b><i>John'<b>'</b>s Old Shoppe</i> and not PHP's default <i>John<b>'</b>s
1042 Old Shoppe</i> with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#qstr">qstr</a>()</font>.
1043 </p>
1044 <p>Observe the error-handling of the Execute statement. False is returned by<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">
1045 <a href="#execute">Execute</a>() </font>if an error occured. The error message
1046 for the last error that occurred is displayed in <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font>.
1047 Note: <i>php_track_errors</i> might have to be enabled for error messages to
1048 be saved.</p>
1049 <h3> Example 4: Debugging<a name="ex4"></a></h3>
1050 <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br><font>$<font color="#663300">shipto</font> = <b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b>("John's Old Shoppe");<br>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = "insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) ";<br>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> .= "values ('ANATR',2,".$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;FormatDate(time()).",$shipto)";<br><b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;debug = true;</font></b>
1051 <b>if</b> ($<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($sql) <b>=== false</b>) <b>print</b> 'error inserting';</font>
1052 ?&gt;
1053 </pre>
1054 <p>In the above example, we have turned on debugging by setting <b>debug = true</b>.
1055 This will display the SQL statement before execution, and also show any error
1056 messages. There is no need to call <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font>
1057 in this case. For displaying the recordset, see the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#exrs2html">rs2html</a>()
1058 </font>example.</p>
1059 <p>Also see the section on <a href="#errorhandling">Custom Error Handlers</a>.</p>
1060 <h3>Example 5: MySQL and Menus<a name="ex5"></a></h3>
1061 <p>Connect to MySQL database <i>agora</i>, and generate a &lt;select&gt; menu
1062 from an SQL statement where the &lt;option&gt; captions are in the 1st column,
1063 and the value to send back to the server is in the 2nd column.</p>
1064 <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br><font>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';<br>$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($sql);<br><b>print</b> <b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">rs</font>-&gt;GetMenu('GetCust','Mary Rosli');<br>?&gt;</font></b></font></pre>
1065 <p>Here we define a menu named GetCust, with the menu option 'Mary Rosli' selected.
1066 See <a href="#getmenu"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">GetMenu</font></a><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">()</font>.
1067 We also have functions that return the recordset as an array: <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#getarray">GetArray</a>()</font>,
1068 and as an associative array with the key being the first column: <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a>().</p>
1069 <h3>Example 6: Connecting to 2 Databases At Once<a name="ex6"></a></h3>
1070 <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#663300">conn1</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a mysql connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn2</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('oracle'); # create a oracle connection<br><br>$conn1-&gt;PConnect($server, $userid, $password, $database);<br>$conn2-&gt;PConnect(false, $ora_userid, $ora_pwd, $oraname);<br><br>$conn1-&gt;Execute('insert ...');<br>$conn2-&gt;Execute('update ...');<br>?&gt;</pre>
1071 <p>
1072 </p><h3>Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL<a name="ex7"></a></h3>
1073 <p>Since ADOdb 4.56, we support <a href="reference.functions.getupdatesql.html#autoexecute">AutoExecute()</a>,
1074 which simplifies things by providing an advanced wrapper for GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL(). For example,
1075 an INSERT can be carried out with:
1077 <pre>
1078 $record["firstname"] = "Bob";
1079 $record["lastname"] = "Smith";
1080 $record["created"] = time();
1081 $insertSQL = $conn->AutoExecute($rs, $record, 'INSERT');
1082 </pre>
1084 and an UPDATE with:
1085 <pre>
1086 $record["firstname"] = "Caroline";
1087 $record["lastname"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith
1088 $insertSQL = $conn->AutoExecute($rs, $record, 'UPDATE', 'id = 1');
1089 </pre>
1090 <p>
1091 The rest of this section is out-of-date:
1092 <p>ADOdb 1.31 and later supports two new recordset functions: GetUpdateSQL( ) and
1093 GetInsertSQL( ). This allow you to perform a "SELECT * FROM table query WHERE...",
1094 make a copy of the $rs-&gt;fields, modify the fields, and then generate the SQL to
1095 update or insert into the table automatically.
1096 <p> We show how the functions can be used when accessing a table with the following
1097 fields: (ID, FirstName, LastName, Created).
1098 </p><p> Before these functions can be called, you need to initialize the recordset
1099 by performing a select on the table. Idea and code by Jonathan Younger jyounger#unilab.com.
1100 Since ADOdb 2.42, you can pass a table name instead of a recordset into
1101 GetInsertSQL (in $rs), and it will generate an insert statement for that table.
1102 </p><p>
1103 </p><pre>&lt;?<br>#==============================================<br># SAMPLE GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() code<br>#==============================================<br>include('adodb.inc.php');<br>include('tohtml.inc.php');<br><br>#==========================<br># This code tests an insert<br><br>$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = -1"; <br># Select an empty record from the database<br><br>$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection("mysql"); # create a connection<br>$conn-&gt;debug=1;<br>$conn-&gt;PConnect("localhost", "admin", "", "test"); # connect to MySQL, testdb<br>$rs = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the empty recordset<br><br>$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to insert<br><br># Set the values for the fields in the record<br># Note that field names are case-insensitive<br>$record["firstname"] = "Bob";<br>$record["lastNamE"] = "Smith";<br>$record["creaTed"] = time();<br><br># Pass the empty recordset and the array containing the data to insert<br># into the GetInsertSQL function. The function will process the data and return<br># a fully formatted insert sql statement.<br>$insertSQL = $conn-&gt;GetInsertSQL($rs, $record);<br><br>$conn-&gt;Execute($insertSQL); # Insert the record into the database<br><br>#==========================<br># This code tests an update<br><br>$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = 1"; <br># Select a record to update<br><br>$rs = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the existing record to update<br><br>$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to update<br><br># Set the values for the fields in the record<br># Note that field names are case-insensitive<br>$record["firstname"] = "Caroline";<br>$record["LasTnAme"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith<br><br># Pass the single record recordset and the array containing the data to update<br># into the GetUpdateSQL function. The function will process the data and return<br># a fully formatted update sql statement with the correct WHERE clause.<br># If the data has not changed, no recordset is returned<br>$updateSQL = $conn-&gt;GetUpdateSQL($rs, $record);<br><br>$conn-&gt;Execute($updateSQL); # Update the record in the database<br>$conn-&gt;Close();<br>?&gt;<br></pre>
1104 <a name="ADODB_FORCE_TYPE"></a>
1105 <b>$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</b><p>
1106 The behaviour of AutoExecute(), GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL()
1107 when converting empty or null PHP variables to SQL is controlled by the
1108 global $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE variable. Set it to one of the values below. Default
1109 is ADODB_FORCE_VALUE (3):
1110 </p><pre>0 = ignore empty fields. All empty fields in array are ignored.<br>1 = force null. All empty, php null and string 'null' fields are changed to sql NULL values.<br>2 = force empty. All empty, php null and string 'null' fields are changed to sql empty '' or 0 values.<br>3 = force value. Value is left as it is. Php null and string 'null' are set to sql NULL values and <br> empty fields '' are set to empty '' sql values.<br><br>define('ADODB_FORCE_IGNORE',0);<br>define('ADODB_FORCE_NULL',1);<br>define('ADODB_FORCE_EMPTY',2);<br>define('ADODB_FORCE_VALUE',3);<br></pre>
1111 <p>
1112 Thanks to Niko (nuko#mbnet.fi) for the $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE code.
1113 </p><p>
1114 Note: the constant ADODB_FORCE_NULLS is obsolete since 4.52 and is ignored. Set $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE = ADODB_FORCE_NULL
1115 for equivalent behaviour.
1116 <p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.
1117 </p><h3>Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous<a name="ex8"></a></h3>
1118 <p> The following code creates a very simple recordset pager, where you can scroll
1119 from page to page of a recordset.</p>
1120 <pre>include_once('../adodb.inc.php');<br>include_once('../adodb-pager.inc.php');<br>session_start();<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br><br>$db-&gt;Connect('localhost','root','','xphplens');<br><br>$sql = "select * from adoxyz ";<br><br>$pager = new ADODB_Pager($db,$sql);<br>$pager-&gt;Render($rows_per_page=5);</pre>
1121 <p>This will create a basic record pager that looks like this: <a name="scr"></a>
1122 </p><p>
1123 <table bgcolor="beige" border="1">
1124 <tbody><tr>
1125 <td> <a href="#scr"><code>|&lt;</code></a> &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>&lt;&lt;</code></a>
1126 &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>&gt;&gt;</code></a> &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>&gt;|</code></a>
1127 &nbsp; </td>
1128 </tr>
1129 <tr>
1130 <td><table bgcolor="white" border="1" cols="4" width="100%">
1131 <tbody><tr><th>ID</th>
1132 <th>First Name</th>
1133 <th>Last Name</th>
1134 <th>Date Created</th>
1135 </tr><tr>
1136 <td align="right">36&nbsp;</td>
1137 <td>Alan&nbsp;</td>
1138 <td>Turing&nbsp;</td>
1139 <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1140 </tr>
1141 <tr>
1142 <td align="right">37&nbsp;</td>
1143 <td>Serena&nbsp;</td>
1144 <td>Williams&nbsp;</td>
1145 <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1146 </tr>
1147 <tr>
1148 <td align="right">38&nbsp;</td>
1149 <td>Yat Sun&nbsp;</td>
1150 <td>Sun&nbsp;</td>
1151 <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1152 </tr>
1153 <tr>
1154 <td align="right">39&nbsp;</td>
1155 <td>Wai Hun&nbsp;</td>
1156 <td>See&nbsp;</td>
1157 <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1158 </tr>
1159 <tr>
1160 <td align="right">40&nbsp;</td>
1161 <td>Steven&nbsp;</td>
1162 <td>Oey&nbsp;</td>
1163 <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1164 </tr>
1165 </tbody></table></td>
1166 </tr>
1167 <tr>
1168 <td><font size="-1">Page 8/10</font></td>
1169 </tr>
1170 </tbody></table>
1171 </p><p>The number of rows to display at one time is controled by the Render($rows)
1172 method. If you do not pass any value to Render(), ADODB_Pager will default to
1173 10 records per page.
1174 </p><p>You can control the column titles by modifying your SQL (supported by most
1175 databases):
1176 </p><pre>$sql = 'select id as "ID", firstname as "First Name", <br> lastname as "Last Name", created as "Date Created" <br> from adoxyz';</pre>
1177 <p>The above code can be found in the <i>adodb/tests/testpaging.php</i> example
1178 included with this release, and the class ADODB_Pager in <i>adodb/adodb-pager.inc.php</i>.
1179 The ADODB_Pager code can be adapted by a programmer so that the text links can
1180 be replaced by images, and the dull white background be replaced with more interesting
1181 colors.
1182 </p><p>You can also allow display of html by setting $pager-&gt;htmlSpecialChars = false.
1183 </p><p>Some of the code used here was contributed by Iv&aacute;n Oliva and Cornel
1184 G. </p>
1185 <h3><a name="ex9"></a>Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</h3>
1186 <p>We provide some helper functions to export in comma-separated-value (CSV) and
1187 tab-delimited formats:</p>
1188 <pre><b>include_once('/path/to/adodb/toexport.inc.php');</b><br>include_once('/path/to/adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br>
1189 $db = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>$db-&gt;Connect($server, $userid, $password, $database);<br><br>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select fname as "First Name", surname as "Surname" from table');<br><br>print "&lt;pre&gt;";<br>print <b>rs2csv</b>($rs); # return a string, CSV format<p>print '&lt;hr&gt;';<br><br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst(); # note, some databases do not support MoveFirst<br>print <b>rs2tab</b>($rs,<i>false</i>); # return a string, tab-delimited<br> # false == suppress field names in first line</p>print '&lt;hr&gt;';<br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br><b>rs2tabout</b>($rs); # send to stdout directly (there is also an rs2csvout function)<br>print "&lt;/pre&gt;";<br><br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br>$fp = fopen($path, "w");<br>if ($fp) {<br> <b>rs2csvfile</b>($rs, $fp); # write to file (there is also an rs2tabfile function)<br> fclose($fp);<br>}<br></pre>
1190 <p> Carriage-returns or newlines are converted to spaces. Field names are returned
1191 in the first line of text. Strings containing the delimiter character are quoted
1192 with double-quotes. Double-quotes are double-quoted again. This conforms to
1193 Excel import and export guide-lines.
1194 </p><p>All the above functions take as an optional last parameter, $addtitles which
1195 defaults to <i>true</i>. When set to <i>false</i> field names in the first line
1196 are suppressed. <br>
1197 </p><h3>Example 10: Recordset Filters<a name="ex10"></a></h3>
1198 <p>Sometimes we want to pre-process all rows in a recordset before we use it.
1199 For example, we want to ucwords all text in recordset.
1200 </p><pre>include_once('adodb/rsfilter.inc.php');<br>include_once('adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br><br>// ucwords() every element in the recordset<br>function do_ucwords(&amp;$arr,$rs)<br>{<br> foreach($arr as $k =&gt; $v) {<br> $arr[$k] = ucwords($v);<br> }<br>}<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>$db-&gt;PConnect('server','user','pwd','db');<br><br>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select ... from table');<br>$rs = <b>RSFilter</b>($rs,'do_ucwords');<br></pre>
1201 <p>The <i>RSFilter</i> function takes 2 parameters, the recordset, and the name
1202 of the <i>filter</i> function. It returns the processed recordset scrolled to
1203 the first record. The <i>filter</i> function takes two parameters, the current
1204 row as an array, and the recordset object. For future compatibility, you should
1205 not use the original recordset object. </p>
1206 <h3>Example 11:<a name="ex11"></a> Smart Transactions</h3>
1207 The old way of doing transactions required you to use
1208 <pre>$conn-&gt;<b>BeginTrans</b>();<br>$ok = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if ($ok) $ok = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql2);<br>if (!$ok) $conn-&gt;<b>RollbackTrans</b>();<br>else $conn-&gt;<b>CommitTrans</b>();<br></pre>
1209 This is very complicated for large projects because you have to track the error
1210 status. Smart Transactions is much simpler. You start a smart transaction by calling
1211 StartTrans():
1212 <pre>$conn-&gt;<b>StartTrans</b>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);<br>$conn-&gt;<b>CompleteTrans</b>();<br></pre>
1213 CompleteTrans() detects when an SQL error occurs, and will Rollback/Commit as
1214 appropriate. To specificly force a rollback even if no error occured, use FailTrans().
1215 Note that the rollback is done in CompleteTrans(), and not in FailTrans().
1216 <pre>$conn-&gt;<b>StartTrans</b>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if (!CheckRecords()) $conn-&gt;<strong>FailTrans</strong>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);<br>$conn-&gt;<b>CompleteTrans</b>();<br></pre>
1217 <p>You can also check if a transaction has failed, using HasFailedTrans(), which
1218 returns true if FailTrans() was called, or there was an error in the SQL execution.
1219 Make sure you call HasFailedTrans() before you call CompleteTrans(), as it is
1220 only works between StartTrans/CompleteTrans.
1221 </p><p>Lastly, StartTrans/CompleteTrans is nestable, and only the outermost block
1222 is executed. In contrast, BeginTrans/CommitTrans/RollbackTrans is NOT nestable.
1223 </p><pre>$conn-&gt;<strong>StartTrans</strong>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br> $conn-&gt;<strong>StartTrans</strong>(); <font color="#006600"># ignored</font>
1224 if (!CheckRecords()) $conn-&gt;FailTrans();
1225 $conn-&gt;<strong>CompleteTrans</strong>(); <font color="#006600"># ignored</font>
1226 $conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);
1227 $conn-&gt;<strong>CompleteTrans</strong>();<br></pre>
1228 <p>Note: Savepoints are currently not supported.
1229 </p><h2><a name="errorhandling"></a>Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</h2>
1230 <p>ADOdb supports PHP5 exceptions. Just include <i>adodb-exceptions.inc.php</i> and you can now
1231 catch exceptions on errors as they occur.
1232 </p><pre> <b>include("../adodb-exceptions.inc.php");</b> <br> include("../adodb.inc.php"); <br> try { <br> $db = NewADOConnection("oci8://scott:bad-password@mytns/"); <br> } catch (exception $e) { <br> var_dump($e); <br> adodb_backtrace($e-&gt;gettrace());<br> } <br></pre>
1233 <p> ADOdb also provides two custom handlers which you can modify for your needs. The
1234 first one is in the <b>adodb-errorhandler.inc.php</b> file. This makes use of
1235 the standard PHP functions <a href="http://php.net/error_reporting">error_reporting</a>
1236 to control what error messages types to display, and <a href="http://php.net/trigger_error">trigger_error</a>
1237 which invokes the default PHP error handler.
1238 </p><p> Including the above file will cause <i>trigger_error($errorstring,E_USER_ERROR)</i>
1239 to be called when<br>
1240 (a) Connect() or PConnect() fails, or <br>
1241 (b) a function that executes SQL statements such as Execute() or SelectLimit()
1242 has an error.<br>
1243 (c) GenID() appears to go into an infinite loop.
1244 </p><p> The $errorstring is generated by ADOdb and will contain useful debugging information
1245 similar to the error.log data generated below. This file adodb-errorhandler.inc.php
1246 should be included before you create any ADOConnection objects.
1247 </p><p> If you define error_reporting(0), no errors will be passed to the error handler.
1248 If you set error_reporting(E_ALL), all errors will be passed to the error handler.
1249 You still need to use <b>ini_set("display_errors", "0" or "1")</b> to control
1250 the display of errors.
1251 </p><pre>&lt;?php<br><b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # pass any error messages triggered to error handler<br>include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b>
1252 include('adodb.inc.php');
1253 include('tohtml.inc.php');
1254 $c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
1255 $c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
1256 $rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');
1257 if ($rs) rs2html($rs);
1258 ?&gt;
1259 </pre>
1260 <p> If you want to log the error message, you can do so by defining the following
1262 is the error log message type (see <a href="http://php.net/error_log">error_log</a>
1263 in the PHP manual). In this case we set it to 3, which means log to the file
1264 defined by the constant ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST.
1265 </p><pre>&lt;?php<br><b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # report all errors<br>ini_set("display_errors", "0"); # but do not echo the errors<br>define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE',3);<br>define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST','C:/errors.log');<br>include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b>
1266 include('adodb.inc.php');
1267 include('tohtml.inc.php');
1269 $c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
1270 $c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
1271 $rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); ## invalid table productsz
1272 if ($rs) rs2html($rs);
1273 ?&gt;
1274 </pre>
1275 The following message will be logged in the error.log file:
1276 <pre>(2001-10-28 14:20:38) mysql error: [1146: Table 'northwind.productsz' doesn't exist] in<br> EXECUTE("select * from productsz")<br></pre>
1277 <h3>PEAR_ERROR</h3>
1278 The second error handler is <b>adodb-errorpear.inc.php</b>. This will create a
1279 PEAR_Error derived object whenever an error occurs. The last PEAR_Error object
1280 created can be retrieved using ADODB_Pear_Error().
1281 <pre>&lt;?php<br><b>include('adodb-errorpear.inc.php');</b>
1282 include('adodb.inc.php');
1283 include('tohtml.inc.php');
1284 $c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
1285 $c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
1286 $rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');
1287 if ($rs) rs2html($rs);
1288 else {
1289 <b>$e = ADODB_Pear_Error();<br> echo '&lt;p&gt;',$e-&gt;message,'&lt;/p&gt;';</b>
1290 }
1291 ?&gt;
1292 </pre>
1293 <p> You can use a PEAR_Error derived class by defining the constant ADODB_PEAR_ERROR_CLASS
1294 before the adodb-errorpear.inc.php file is included. For easy debugging, you
1295 can set the default error handler in the beginning of the PHP script to PEAR_ERROR_DIE,
1296 which will cause an error message to be printed, then halt script execution:
1297 </p><pre>include('PEAR.php');<br>PEAR::setErrorHandling('PEAR_ERROR_DIE');<br></pre>
1298 <p> Note that we do not explicitly return a PEAR_Error object to you when an error
1299 occurs. We return false instead. You have to call ADODB_Pear_Error() to get
1300 the last error or use the PEAR_ERROR_DIE technique.
1301 </p>
1302 <h3>MetaError and MetaErrMsg</h3>
1303 <p>If you need error messages that work across multiple databases, then use <a href="#metaerror">MetaError()</a>, which returns a virtualized error number, based on PEAR DB's error number system, and <a href=<a href="#metaerrmsg">MetaErrMsg()</a>.
1305 <h4>Error Messages</h4>
1306 <p>Error messages are outputted using the static method ADOConnnection::outp($msg,$newline=true).
1307 By default, it sends the messages to the client. You can override this to perform
1308 error-logging.
1309 </p><h2><a name="dsn"></a> Data Source Names</h2>
1310 <p>We now support connecting using PEAR style DSN's. A DSN is a connection string
1311 of the form:</p>
1312 <p>$dsn = <i>"$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename"</i>;</p>
1313 <p>An example:</p>
1314 <pre> $username = 'root';<br> $password = '';<br> $hostname = 'localhost';<br> $databasename = 'xphplens';<br> $driver = 'mysql';<br> $dsn = "$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename"<br> $db = NewADOConnection(); <br> # DB::Connect($dsn) also works if you include 'adodb/adodb-pear.inc.php' at the top<br> $rs = $db-&gt;query('select firstname,lastname from adoxyz');<br> $cnt = 0;<br> while ($arr = $rs-&gt;fetchRow()) {<br> print_r($arr); print "&lt;br&gt;";<br> }</pre>
1315 <p></p>
1316 <p> <a href="#dsnsupport">More info and connection examples</a> on the DSN format.
1318 </p><h2><a name="pear"></a>PEAR Compatibility</h2>
1319 We support DSN's (see above), and the following functions:
1320 <pre><b> DB_Common</b>
1321 query - returns PEAR_Error on error
1322 limitQuery - return PEAR_Error on error
1323 prepare - does not return PEAR_Error on error
1324 execute - does not return PEAR_Error on error
1325 setFetchMode - supports ASSOC and ORDERED
1326 errorNative
1327 quote
1328 nextID
1329 disconnect
1331 getOne
1332 getAssoc
1333 getRow
1334 getCol
1336 <b> DB_Result</b>
1337 numRows - returns -1 if not supported
1338 numCols
1339 fetchInto - does not support passing of fetchmode
1340 fetchRows - does not support passing of fetchmode
1341 free
1342 </pre>
1343 <h2><a name="caching"></a>Caching of Recordsets</h2>
1344 <p>ADOdb now supports caching of recordsets using the CacheExecute( ), CachePageExecute(
1345 ) and CacheSelectLimit( ) functions. There are similar to the non-cache functions,
1346 except that they take a new first parameter, $secs2cache.
1347 </p><p> An example:
1348 </p><pre><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$ADODB_CACHE_DIR = '/usr/ADODB_cache';<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br><font>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';<br>$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;CacheExecute(15,$sql);</font></pre>
1349 <p><font> The first parameter is the number of seconds to cache
1350 the query. Subsequent calls to that query will used the cached version stored
1351 in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. To force a query to execute and flush the cache, call CacheExecute()
1352 with the first parameter set to zero. Alternatively, use the CacheFlush($sql)
1353 call. </font></p>
1354 <p><font>For the sake of security, we recommend you set <i>register_globals=off</i>
1355 in php.ini if you are using $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.</font></p>
1356 <p>In ADOdb 1.80 onwards, the secs2cache parameter is optional in CacheSelectLimit()
1357 and CacheExecute(). If you leave it out, it will use the $connection-&gt;cacheSecs
1358 parameter, which defaults to 60 minutes.
1359 </p><pre> $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br> $conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; # cache 24 hours<br> $rs = $conn-&gt;CacheExecute('select * from table');<br></pre>
1360 <p>Please note that magic_quotes_runtime should be turned off. <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?LeNs#LensBM_forummsg">More
1361 info</a>, and do not change $ADODB_FETCH_MODE (or SetFetchMode)
1362 as the cached recordset will use the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE set when the query was executed. <font>
1363 <h2><a name="pivot"></a>Pivot Tables</h2>
1364 </font> </p><p><font>Since ADOdb 2.30, we support the generation of
1365 SQL to create pivot tables, also known as cross-tabulations. For further explanation
1366 read this DevShed <a href="http://www.devshed.com/Server_Side/MySQL/MySQLWiz/">Cross-Tabulation
1367 tutorial</a>. We assume that your database supports the SQL case-when expression. </font></p>
1368 <font>
1369 <p>In this example, we will use the Northwind database from Microsoft. In the
1370 database, we have a products table, and we want to analyze this table by <i>suppliers
1371 versus product categories</i>. We will place the suppliers on each row, and
1372 pivot on categories. So from the table on the left, we generate the pivot-table
1373 on the right:</p>
1374 </font>
1375 <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1376 <tbody><tr>
1377 <td>
1378 <table align="center" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2" width="142">
1379 <tbody><tr>
1380 <td><i>Supplier</i></td>
1381 <td><i>Category</i></td>
1382 </tr>
1383 <tr>
1384 <td>supplier1</td>
1385 <td>category1</td>
1386 </tr>
1387 <tr>
1388 <td>supplier2</td>
1389 <td>category1</td>
1390 </tr>
1391 <tr>
1392 <td>supplier2</td>
1393 <td>category2</td>
1394 </tr>
1395 </tbody></table>
1396 </td>
1397 <td> <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">--&gt;</font></td>
1398 <td>
1399 <table align="center" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1400 <tbody><tr>
1401 <td>&nbsp;</td>
1402 <td><i>category1</i></td>
1403 <td><i>category2</i></td>
1404 <td><i>total</i></td>
1405 </tr>
1406 <tr>
1407 <td><i>supplier1</i></td>
1408 <td align="right">1</td>
1409 <td align="right">0</td>
1410 <td align="right">1</td>
1411 </tr>
1412 <tr>
1413 <td><i>supplier2</i></td>
1414 <td align="right">1</td>
1415 <td align="right">1</td>
1416 <td align="right">2</td>
1417 </tr>
1418 </tbody></table>
1419 </td>
1420 </tr>
1421 </tbody></table>
1422 <font>
1423 </font><p><font>The following code will generate the SQL for a cross-tabulation:
1424 </font></p><pre><font># Query the main "product" table<br># Set the rows to SupplierName<br># and the columns to the values of Categories<br># and define the joins to link to lookup tables <br># "categories" and "suppliers"<br>#<br> include "adodb/pivottable.inc.php";<br> $sql = PivotTableSQL(<br> $gDB, # adodb connection<br> 'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s', # tables<br> 'SupplierName', # rows (multiple fields allowed)<br> 'CategoryName', # column to pivot on <br> 'p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID' # joins/where<br>);<br></font></pre>
1426 <p><font> This will generate the following SQL:</font></p>
1427 <p><code><font size="2">SELECT SupplierName, <br>
1428 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Beverages' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Beverages",
1429 <br>
1430 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Condiments' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Condiments",
1431 <br>
1432 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Confections' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Confections",
1433 <br>
1434 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Dairy Products' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Dairy
1435 Products", <br>
1436 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Grains/Cereals' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Grains/Cereals",
1437 <br>
1438 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Meat/Poultry' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Meat/Poultry",
1439 <br>
1440 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Produce' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Produce",
1441 <br>
1442 SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Seafood' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Seafood",
1443 <br>
1444 SUM(1) as Total <br>
1445 FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID
1446 and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID <br>
1447 GROUP BY SupplierName</font></code></p>
1448 <p> You can also pivot on <i>numerical columns</i> and <i>generate totals</i>
1449 by using ranges. <font>This code was revised in ADODB 2.41
1450 and is not backward compatible.</font> The second example shows this:</p>
1451 <pre> $sql = PivotTableSQL(<br> $gDB, # adodb connection<br> 'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s', # tables<br> 'SupplierName', #<font> rows (multiple fields allowed)</font>
1452 array( # column ranges
1453 ' 0 ' =&gt; 'UnitsInStock &lt;= 0',
1454 "1 to 5" =&gt; '0 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 5',
1455 "6 to 10" =&gt; '5 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 10',
1456 "11 to 15" =&gt; '10 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 15',
1457 "16+" =&gt; '15 &lt; UnitsInStock'
1458 ),
1459 ' p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID', # joins/where
1460 'UnitsInStock', # sum this field
1461 'Sum ' # sum label prefix
1462 );
1463 </pre>
1464 <p>Which generates: </p>
1465 <p> <code> <font size="2">SELECT SupplierName, <br>
1466 SUM(CASE WHEN UnitsInStock &lt;= 0 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum
1467 0 ", <br>
1468 SUM(CASE WHEN 0 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 5 THEN UnitsInStock
1469 ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 1 to 5",<br>
1470 SUM(CASE WHEN 5 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 10 THEN UnitsInStock
1471 ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 6 to 10",<br>
1472 SUM(CASE WHEN 10 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 15 THEN UnitsInStock
1473 ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 11 to 15", <br>
1474 SUM(CASE WHEN 15 &lt; UnitsInStock THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum
1475 16+", <br>
1476 SUM(UnitsInStock) AS "Sum UnitsInStock", <br>
1477 SUM(1) as Total,<br>
1478 FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID
1479 and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID <br>
1480 GROUP BY SupplierName</font></code><font size="2"><br>
1481 </font> </p>
1482 <font><hr />
1483 <h1>Class Reference<a name="ref"></a></h1>
1484 <p>Function parameters with [ ] around them are optional.</p>
1485 </font>
1486 <h2>Global Variables</h2>
1487 <h3><font><a name="adodb_countrecs"></a></font>$ADODB_COUNTRECS</h3>
1488 <p>If the database driver API does not support counting the number of records
1489 returned in a SELECT statement, the function RecordCount() is emulated when
1490 the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS is set to true, which is the default.
1491 We emulate this by buffering the records, which can take up large amounts
1492 of memory for big recordsets. Set this variable to false for the best performance.
1493 This variable is checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively
1494 choose which recordsets to count.</p>
1495 <h3><font><a name="adodb_cache_dir"></a>$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</font></h3>
1496 <font>
1497 <p>If you are using recordset caching, this is the directory to save your recordsets
1498 in. Define this before you call any caching functions such as CacheExecute(
1499 ). We recommend setting <i>register_globals=off</i> in php.ini if you use this
1500 feature for security reasons.</p>
1501 <p>If you are using Unix and apache, you might need to set your cache directory
1502 permissions to something similar to the following:</p>
1503 </font>
1504 <p>chown -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache<br>
1505 chgrp -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache </p>
1506 <h3><font><a name="adodb_ansi_padding_off"></a>$ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF</font></h3>
1507 <p><font>Determines whether to right trim CHAR fields (and also VARCHAR for ibase/firebird).
1508 Set to true to trim. Default is false. Currently works for oci8po, ibase and firebird
1509 drivers. Added in ADOdb 4.01.
1510 </font></p><h3><font><a name="adodb_lang"></a>$ADODB_LANG</font></h3>
1511 <p><font>Determines the language used in MetaErrorMsg(). The default is 'en', for English.
1512 To find out what languages are supported, see the files
1513 in adodb/lang/adodb-$lang.inc.php, where $lang is the supported langauge.
1514 </font></p><h3><font><a name="adodb_fetch_mode"></a>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</font></h3>
1515 <p><font>This is a global variable that determines how arrays are retrieved by recordsets.
1516 The recordset saves this value on creation (eg. in Execute( ) or SelectLimit(
1517 )), and any subsequent changes to $ADODB_FETCH_MODE have no affect on existing
1518 recordsets, only on recordsets created in the future.</font></p>
1519 <p><font>The following constants are defined:</font></p>
1521 <p><font>define('ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT',0);<br>
1522 define('ADODB_FETCH_NUM',1);<br>
1523 define('ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC',2);<br>
1524 define('ADODB_FETCH_BOTH',3); </font></p>
1525 <font>
1526 </font><p><font> An example:
1527 </font></p><pre><font> $ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;<br> $rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> $ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC;<br> $rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i>
1528 print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i>
1529 </font></pre>
1530 <p><font> As you can see in the above example, both recordsets store and use different
1531 fetch modes based on the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE setting when the recordset was
1532 created by Execute().</font></p>
1533 <p><font>If no fetch mode is predefined, the fetch mode defaults to ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT.
1534 The behaviour of this default mode varies from driver to driver, so do not
1535 rely on ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. For portability, we recommend sticking to ADODB_FETCH_NUM
1536 or ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Many drivers do not support ADODB_FETCH_BOTH.</font></p>
1537 <p><font><strong>SetFetchMode Function</strong></font></p>
1538 <p><font>If you have multiple connection objects, and want to have different fetch modes for each
1539 connection, then use <a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a>.
1540 Once this function is called for a connection object, that connection object
1541 will ignore the global variable $ADODB_FETCH_MODE and will use the internal
1542 fetchMode property exclusively.</font></p>
1543 <pre><font> $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);<br> $rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);<br> $rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br> print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i>
1544 print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i></font></pre>
1545 <p><font>To retrieve the previous fetch mode, you can use check the $db-&gt;fetchMode
1546 property, or use the return value of SetFetchMode( ).
1547 </font></p><p><font><strong><a name="adodb_assoc_case"></a>ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</strong></font></p>
1548 <p><font>You can control the associative fetch case for certain drivers which behave
1549 differently. For the sybase, oci8po, mssql, odbc and ibase drivers and all
1550 drivers derived from them, ADODB_ASSOC_CASE will by default generate recordsets
1551 where the field name keys are lower-cased. Use the constant ADODB_ASSOC_CASE
1552 to change the case of the keys. There are 3 possible values:</font></p>
1553 <p><font>0 = assoc lowercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['orderid']<br>
1554 1 = assoc uppercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['ORDERID']<br>
1555 2 = use native-case field names. $rs-&gt;fields['OrderID'] -- this is the
1556 default since ADOdb 2.90</font></p>
1557 <p><font>To use it, declare it before you incldue adodb.inc.php.</font></p>
1558 <p><font>define('ADODB_ASSOC_CASE', 2); # use native-case for ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC<br>
1559 include('adodb.inc.php'); </font></p>
1560 <h3><font><a name="force_type"></a>$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</font></h3>
1561 <p><font>See the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">GetUpdateSQL tutorial</a>.
1562 </font></p><hr />
1563 <h2><font>ADOConnection<a name="adoconnection"></a></font></h2>
1564 <p><font>Object that performs the connection to the database, executes SQL statements
1565 and has a set of utility functions for standardising the format of SQL statements
1566 for issues such as concatenation and date formats.</font></p>
1567 <h3><font>ADOConnection Fields</font></h3>
1568 <p><font><b>databaseType</b>: Name of the database system we are connecting to. Eg.
1569 <b>odbc</b> or <b>mssql</b> or <b>mysql</b>.</font></p>
1570 <p><font><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database.
1571 Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</font></p>
1572 <p><font><b>host: </b>Name of server or data source name (DSN) to connect to.</font></p>
1573 <p><font><b>database</b>: Name of the database or to connect to. If ado is used, it
1574 will hold the ado data provider.</font></p>
1575 <p><font><b>user</b>: Login id to connect to database. Password is not saved for security
1576 reasons.</font></p>
1577 <p><font><b>raiseErrorFn</b>: Allows you to define an error handling function. See adodb-errorhandler.inc.php
1578 for an example.</font></p>
1579 <p><font><b>debug</b>: Set to <i>true</i> to make debug statements to appear.</font></p>
1580 <p><font><b>concat_operator</b>: Set to '+' or '||' normally. The operator used to concatenate
1581 strings in SQL. Used by the <b><a href="#concat">Concat</a></b> function.</font></p>
1582 <p><font><b>fmtDate</b>: The format used by the <b><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a></b>
1583 function to send dates to the database. is '#Y-m-d#' for Microsoft Access,
1584 and ''Y-m-d'' for MySQL.</font></p>
1585 <p><font><b>fmtTimeStamp: </b>The format used by the <b><a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a></b>
1586 function to send timestamps to the database. </font></p>
1587 <p><font><b>true</b>: The value used to represent true.Eg. '.T.'. for Foxpro, '1' for
1588 Microsoft SQL.</font></p>
1589 <p><font><b>false: </b> The value used to represent false. Eg. '.F.'. for Foxpro, '0'
1590 for Microsoft SQL.</font></p>
1591 <p><font><b>replaceQuote</b>: The string used to escape quotes. Eg. double single-quotes
1592 for Microsoft SQL, and backslash-quote for MySQL. Used by <a href="#qstr">qstr</a>.</font></p>
1593 <p><font><b>autoCommit</b>: indicates whether automatic commit is enabled. Default is
1594 true.</font></p>
1595 <p><font><b>charSet</b>: set the default charset to use. Currently only interbase/firebird supports
1596 this.</font></p>
1597 <p><font><b>dialect</b>: set the default sql dialect to use. Currently only interbase/firebird
1598 supports this.</font></p>
1599 <p><font><b>role</b>: set the role. Currently only interbase/firebird
1600 supports this.</font></p>
1601 <p><font><b>metaTablesSQL</b>: SQL statement to return a list of available tables. Eg.
1602 <i>SHOW TABLES</i> in MySQL.</font></p>
1603 <p><font><b>genID</b>: The latest id generated by GenID() if supported by the database.</font></p>
1604 <p><font><b>cacheSecs</b>: The number of seconds to cache recordsets if CacheExecute()
1605 or CacheSelectLimit() omit the $secs2cache parameter. Defaults to 60 minutes.</font></p>
1606 <p><font><b>sysDate</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to call
1607 to get the current date. Useful for inserts and updates.</font></p>
1608 <p><font><b>sysTimeStamp</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to
1609 call to get the current timestamp/datetime value.</font></p>
1610 <p><font><b>leftOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known.
1611 Otherwise set to false.</font></p>
1612 <p><font><b>rightOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known.
1613 Otherwise set to false.</font></p>
1614 <p><font><b>ansiOuter</b>: Boolean that if true indicates that ANSI style outer joins
1615 are permitted. Eg. <i>select * from table1 left join table2 on p1=p2.</i></font></p>
1616 <p><font><b>connectSID</b>: Boolean that indicates whether to treat the $database parameter
1617 in connects as the SID for the oci8 driver. Defaults to false. Useful for
1618 Oracle 8.0.5 and earlier.</font></p>
1619 <p><font><b>autoRollback</b>: Persistent connections are auto-rollbacked in PConnect(
1620 ) if this is set to true. Default is false.</font></p>
1621 <hr />
1622 <h3><font>ADOConnection Main Functions</font></h3>
1623 <p><font><b>ADOConnection( )</b></font></p>
1624 <p><font>Constructor function. Do not call this directly. Use ADONewConnection( ) instead.</font></p>
1625 <p><font><b>Connect<a name="connect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></font></p>
1626 <p><font>Non-persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid
1627 $<b>user </b>and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple
1628 databases, connect to database $<b>database</b>. </font></p>
1629 <p><font>Returns true/false depending on connection success. Since 4.23, null is returned if the extension is not loaded.</font></p>
1630 <p><font>ADO Note: If you are using a Microsoft ADO and not OLEDB, you can set the $database
1631 parameter to the OLEDB data provider you are using.</font></p>
1632 <p><font>PostgreSQL: An alternative way of connecting to the database is to pass the
1633 standard PostgreSQL connection string in the first parameter $host, and the
1634 other parameters will be ignored.</font></p>
1635 <p><font>For Oracle and Oci8, there are two ways to connect. First is to use the TNS
1636 name defined in your local tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES). Place the
1637 name in the $database field, and set the $host field to false. Alternatively,
1638 set $host to the server, and $database to the database SID, this bypassed
1639 tnsnames.ora.
1640 </font></p><p><font>Examples:
1641 </font></p><pre><font> # $oraname in tnsnames.ora/ONAMES/HOSTNAMES<br> $conn-&gt;Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname); <br> $conn-&gt;Connect('server:1521', 'scott', 'tiger', 'ServiceName'); # bypass tnsnames.ora</font></pre>
1642 <p><font>There are many examples of connecting to a database.
1643 See <a href="#connect_ex">Connection Examples</a> for many examples.
1645 </font></p><p><font><b>PConnect<a name="pconnect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></font></p>
1646 <p><font>Persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid $<b>user</b>
1647 and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple databases,
1648 connect to database $<b>database</b>.</font></p>
1649 <p><font>We now perform a rollback on persistent connection for selected databases since
1650 2.21, as advised in the PHP manual. See change log or source code for which
1651 databases are affected.
1652 </font></p><p><font>Returns true/false depending on connection. Since 4.23, 0 is returned if the extension is not loaded.
1653 See Connect( ) above for more info.</font></p>
1654 <p><font>Since ADOdb 2.21, we also support autoRollback. If you set:</font></p>
1656 <pre> $conn = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');<br> $conn-&gt;autoRollback = true; # default is false<br> $conn-&gt;PConnect(...); # rollback here</pre>
1657 <p> Then when doing a persistent connection with PConnect( ), ADOdb will
1658 perform a rollback first. This is because it is documented that PHP is
1659 not guaranteed to rollback existing failed transactions when
1660 persistent connections are used. This is implemented in Oracle,
1661 MySQL, PgSQL, MSSQL, ODBC currently.
1662 </p><p>Since ADOdb 3.11, you can force non-persistent
1663 connections even if PConnect is called by defining the constant
1664 ADODB_NEVER_PERSIST before you call PConnect.
1665 </p><p>
1666 Since 4.23, null is returned if the extension is not loaded.
1667 </p><p><b>NConnect<a name="nconnect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>
1668 <p>Always force a new connection. In contrast, PHP sometimes reuses connections
1669 when you use Connect() or PConnect(). Currently works only on mysql (PHP 4.3.0
1670 or later), postgresql and oci8-derived drivers. For other drivers, NConnect() works like
1671 Connect().</p>
1672 <p><font><b>IsConnected( )<a name="isconnected"></a></b></font></p>
1673 <p>
1674 <font>Returns true if connected to database. Added in 4.53.
1676 </font></p><p><font><b>Execute<a name="execute"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1677 <p><font>Execute SQL statement $<b>sql</b> and return derived class of ADORecordSet
1678 if successful. Note that a record set is always returned on success, even
1679 if we are executing an insert or update statement. You can also pass in $sql a statement prepared
1680 in <a href="#prepare">Prepare()</a>.</font></p>
1681 <p><font>Returns derived class of ADORecordSet. Eg. if connecting via mysql, then ADORecordSet_mysql
1682 would be returned. False is returned if there was an error in executing the
1683 sql.</font></p>
1684 <p><font>The $inputarr parameter can be used for binding variables to parameters. Below
1685 is an Oracle example:</font></p>
1686 <pre><font> $conn-&gt;Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", array('val'=&gt; $val));<br> </font></pre>
1687 <p><font>Another example, using ODBC,which uses the ? convention:</font></p>
1688 <pre><font> $conn-&gt;Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", array($val));<br></font></pre>
1689 <font><a name="binding"></a>
1690 <i>Binding variables</i></font><p>
1691 <font>Variable binding speeds the compilation and caching of SQL statements, leading
1692 to higher performance. Currently Oracle, Interbase and ODBC supports variable binding.
1693 Interbase/ODBC style ? binding is emulated in databases that do not support binding.
1694 Note that you do not have to quote strings if you use binding.
1695 </font></p><p><font> Variable binding in the odbc, interbase and oci8po drivers.
1696 </font></p><pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table where val=?', array('10'));<br></font></pre>
1697 <font>Variable binding in the oci8 driver:
1698 </font><pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select name from table where val=:key', <br> array('key' =&gt; 10));<br></font></pre>
1699 <font><a name="bulkbind"></a>
1700 <i>Bulk binding</i>
1701 </font><p><font>Since ADOdb 3.80, we support bulk binding in Execute(), in which you pass in a 2-dimensional array to
1702 be bound to an INSERT/UPDATE or DELETE statement.
1703 </font></p><pre><font>$arr = array(<br> array('Ahmad',32),<br> array('Zulkifli', 24),<br> array('Rosnah', 21)<br> );<br>$ok = $db-&gt;Execute('insert into table (name,age) values (?,?)',$arr);<br></font></pre>
1704 <p><font>This provides very high performance as the SQL statement is prepared first.
1705 The prepared statement is executed repeatedly for each array row until all rows are completed,
1706 or until the first error. Very useful for importing data.
1708 </font></p><p><font><b>CacheExecute<a name="cacheexecute"></a>([$secs2cache,]$sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1709 <p><font>Similar to Execute, except that the recordset is cached for $secs2cache seconds
1710 in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory, and $inputarr only accepts 1-dimensional arrays.
1711 If CacheExecute() is called again with the same $sql, $inputarr,
1712 and also the same database, same userid, and the cached recordset
1713 has not expired, the cached recordset is returned.
1714 </font></p><pre><font> include('adodb.inc.php'); <br> include('tohtml.inc.php');<br> $ADODB_<b>CACHE_DIR</b> = '/usr/local/ADOdbcache';<br> $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); <br> $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br> $rs = $conn-&gt;<b>CacheExecute</b>(15, 'select * from table'); # cache 15 secs<br> rs2html($rs); /* recordset to html table */ <br></font></pre>
1715 <p><font> Alternatively, since ADOdb 1.80, the $secs2cache parameter is optional:</font></p>
1716 <pre><font> $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br> $conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours<br> $rs = $conn-&gt;CacheExecute('select * from table');<br></font></pre>
1717 <font>If $secs2cache is omitted, we use the value
1718 in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, or 1 hour). Use CacheExecute()
1719 only with SELECT statements.
1720 </font><p><font>Performance note: I have done some benchmarks and found that they vary so greatly
1721 that it's better to talk about when caching is of benefit. When your database
1722 server is <i>much slower </i>than your Web server or the database is <i>very
1723 overloaded </i>then ADOdb's caching is good because it reduces the load on
1724 your database server. If your database server is lightly loaded or much faster
1725 than your Web server, then caching could actually reduce performance. </font></p>
1726 <p><font><b>ExecuteCursor<a name="executecursor"></a>($sql,$cursorName='rs',$parameters=false)</b></font></p>
1727 <p><font>Execute an Oracle stored procedure, and returns an Oracle REF cursor variable as
1728 a regular ADOdb recordset. Does not work with any other database except oci8.
1729 Thanks to Robert Tuttle for the design.
1730 </font></p><pre><font> $db = ADONewConnection("oci8"); <br> $db-&gt;Connect("foo.com:1521", "uid", "pwd", "FOO"); <br> $rs = $db-&gt;ExecuteCursor("begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;", <br> 'cursorvar',<br> array('param1'=&gt;10)); <br> # $rs is now just like any other ADOdb recordset object<br> rs2html($rs);</font></pre>
1731 <p><font>ExecuteCursor() is a helper function that does the following internally:
1732 </font></p><pre><font> $stmt = $db-&gt;Prepare("begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;", true); <br> $db-&gt;Parameter($stmt, $cur, 'cursorvar', false, -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);<br> $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($stmt,$bindarr);<br></font></pre>
1733 <p><font>ExecuteCursor only accepts 1 out parameter. So if you have 2 out parameters, use:
1734 </font></p><pre><font> $vv = 'A%';<br> $stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP("BEGIN list_tabs(:crsr,:tt); END;");<br> $db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt, $cur, 'crsr', -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);<br> $db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt, $vv, 'tt', 32); # return varchar(32)<br> $arr = $db-&gt;GetArray($stmt);<br> print_r($arr);<br> echo " val = $vv"; ## outputs 'TEST'<br></font></pre>
1735 <font>for the following PL/SQL:
1736 </font><pre><font> TYPE TabType IS REF CURSOR RETURN TAB%ROWTYPE;<br><br> PROCEDURE list_tabs(tabcursor IN OUT TabType,tablenames IN OUT VARCHAR) IS<br> BEGIN<br> OPEN tabcursor FOR SELECT * FROM TAB WHERE tname LIKE tablenames;<br> tablenames := 'TEST';<br> END list_tabs;<br></font></pre>
1737 <p><font><b>SelectLimit<a name="selectlimit"></a>($sql,$numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1738 <p><font>Returns a recordset if successful. Returns false otherwise. Performs a select
1739 statement, simulating PostgreSQL's SELECT statement, LIMIT $numrows OFFSET
1740 $offset clause.</font></p>
1741 <p><font>In PostgreSQL, SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 will return the first 3 records
1742 only. The equivalent is <code>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',3)</code>.
1743 This functionality is simulated for databases that do not possess this feature.</font></p>
1744 <p><font>And SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 OFFSET 2 will return records 3, 4 and 5 (eg.
1745 after record 2, return 3 rows). The equivalent in ADOdb is <code>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT
1746 * FROM TABLE',3,2)</code>.</font></p>
1747 <p><font>Note that this is the <i>opposite</i> of MySQL's LIMIT clause. You can also
1748 set <code>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',-1,10)</code> to
1749 get rows 11 to the last row.</font></p>
1750 <p><font>The last parameter $inputarr is for databases that support variable binding
1751 such as Oracle oci8. This substantially reduces SQL compilation overhead.
1752 Below is an Oracle example:</font></p>
1753 <pre><font> $conn-&gt;SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", 100,-1,array('val'=&gt; $val));<br> </font></pre>
1754 <p><font>The oci8po driver (oracle portable driver) uses the more standard bind variable
1755 of ?:
1756 </font></p><pre><font> $conn-&gt;SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", 100,-1,array('val'=&gt; $val));<br></font></pre>
1757 <p><font>
1758 </font></p><p><font>Ron Wilson reports that SelectLimit does not work with UNIONs.
1759 </font></p><p><font><b>CacheSelectLimit<a name="cacheselectlimit"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql, $numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1760 <p><font>Similar to SelectLimit, except that the recordset returned is cached for $secs2cache
1761 seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory. </font></p>
1762 <p><font>Since 1.80, $secs2cache has been optional, and you can define the caching time
1763 in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs.</font></p>
1765 <pre><font> $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br> $conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours<br> $rs = $conn-&gt;CacheSelectLimit('select * from table',10);</font></pre>
1766 <font>
1767 </font><p><font><b>CacheFlush<a name="cacheflush"></a>($sql=false,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1768 <p><font>Flush (delete) any cached recordsets for the SQL statement $sql in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.
1769 </font></p><p><font>If no parameter is passed in, then all adodb_*.cache files are deleted.
1770 </font></p>
1771 <p>CacheSelectLimit() rewrites the SQL query, so you won't be able to pass the SQL to CacheFlush. In this case,
1772 to flush the cached SQL recordset returned by CacheSelectLimit(), set $secs2cache to -1:
1773 <pre>
1774 $db->CacheSelectLimit(-1, $sql, $nrows);
1775 </pre>
1776 <p><font> If you want to flush all cached recordsets manually, execute the following
1777 PHP code (works only under Unix): <br>
1778 <code> &nbsp; system("rm -f `find ".$ADODB_CACHE_DIR." -name
1779 adodb_*.cache`");</code></font></p>
1780 <p><font>For general cleanup of all expired files, you should use <a href="http://www.superscripts.com/tutorial/crontab.html">crontab</a>
1781 on Unix, or at.exe on Windows, and a shell script similar to the following:<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><br>
1782 #------------------------------------------------------ <br>
1783 # This particular example deletes files in the TMPPATH <br>
1784 # directory with the string ".cache" in their name that <br>
1785 # are more than 7 days old. <br>
1786 #------------------------------------------------------ <br>
1787 AGED=7 <br>
1788 find ${TMPPATH} -mtime +$AGED | grep "\.cache" | xargs rm -f <br>
1789 </font> </font></p>
1790 <p><font><b>MetaError<a name="metaerror"></a>($errno=false)</b></font></p>
1791 <p><font>Returns a virtualized error number, based on PEAR DB's error number system. You might
1792 need to include adodb-error.inc.php before you call this function. The parameter $errno
1793 is the native error number you want to convert. If you do not pass any parameter, MetaError
1794 will call ErrorNo() for you and convert it. If the error number cannot be virtualized, MetaError
1795 will return -1 (DB_ERROR).</font></p>
1797 <p><font><b>MetaErrorMsg<a name="metaerrormsg"></a>($errno)</b></font></p>
1798 <p><font>Pass the error number returned by MetaError() for the equivalent textual error message.</font></p>
1799 <p><font><b>ErrorMsg<a name="errormsg"></a>()</b></font></p>
1800 <p><font>Returns the last status or error message. The error message is reset after every
1801 call to Execute().
1802 </font></p><p>
1803 <font>This can return a string even if
1804 no error occurs. In general you do not need to call this function unless an
1805 ADOdb function returns false on an error. </font></p>
1806 <p><font>Note: If <b>debug</b> is enabled, the SQL error message is always displayed
1807 when the <b>Execute</b> function is called.</font></p>
1808 <p><font><b>ErrorNo<a name="errorno"></a>()</b></font></p>
1809 <p><font>Returns the last error number. The error number is reset after every call to Execute().
1810 If 0 is returned, no error occurred.
1811 </font></p><p>
1812 <font>Note that old versions of PHP (pre 4.0.6) do
1813 not support error number for ODBC. In general you do not need to call this
1814 function unless an ADOdb function returns false on an error.</font></p>
1815 <p><font><b>IgnoreErrors<a name="ignoreerrors"></a>($saveErrHandlers)</b></font></p>
1816 <p>Allows you to ignore errors so that StartTrans()/CompleteTrans() is not affected, nor is the default error handler called if an error occurs.
1817 Useful when you want to check if a field or table exists in a database without invoking an error if it does not exist.
1818 <p>Usage:
1819 <pre>
1820 $saveErrHandlers = $conn->IgnoreErrors();
1821 $rs = $conn->Execute("select field from some_table_that_might_not_exist");
1822 $conn->IgnoreErrors($saveErrHandlers);
1823 </pre>
1824 <p>Warning: do not call StartTrans()/CompleteTrans() inside a code block that is using IgnoreErrors().
1825 <p><font><b>SetFetchMode<a name="setfetchmode"></a>($mode)</b></font></p>
1826 <p><font>Sets the current fetch mode for the connection and stores
1827 it in $db-&gt;fetchMode. Legal modes are ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC and ADODB_FETCH_NUM.
1828 For more info, see <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>.</font></p>
1829 <p><font>Returns the previous fetch mode, which could be false
1830 if SetFetchMode( ) has not been called before.</font></p>
1831 <font>
1832 </font><p><font><b>CreateSequence<a name="createseq"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></font></p>
1833 <p><font>Create a sequence. The next time GenID( ) is called, the value returned will
1834 be $startID. Added in 2.60.
1835 </font></p><p><font><b>DropSequence<a name="dropseq"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq')</b></font></p>
1836 <p><font>Delete a sequence. Added in 2.60.
1837 </font></p><p><font><b>GenID<a name="genid"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></font></p>
1838 <p><font>Generate a sequence number . Works for interbase,
1839 mysql, postgresql, oci8, oci8po, mssql, ODBC based (access,vfp,db2,etc) drivers
1840 currently. Uses $seqName as the name of the sequence. GenID() will automatically
1841 create the sequence for you if it does not exist (provided the userid has
1842 permission to do so). Otherwise you will have to create the sequence yourself.
1843 </font></p><p><font> If your database driver emulates sequences, the name of the table is the sequence
1844 name. The table has one column, "id" which should be of type integer, or if
1845 you need something larger - numeric(16).
1846 </font></p><p><font> For ODBC and databases that do not support sequences natively (eg mssql, mysql),
1847 we create a table for each sequence. If the sequence has not been defined
1848 earlier, it is created with the starting value set in $startID.</font></p>
1849 <p><font>Note that the mssql driver's GenID() before 1.90 used to generate 16 byte GUID's.</font></p>
1850 <p><font><b>UpdateBlob<a name="updateblob"></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></font></p>
1851 <font>Allows you to store a blob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where.
1852 </font><p><font> Usage:
1853 </font></p><p><font>
1854 </font></p><pre><font> # for oracle<br> $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, empty_blob())');<br> $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');<br> <br> # non oracle databases<br> $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, null)');<br> $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');<br></font></pre>
1855 <p><font> Returns true if succesful, false otherwise. Supported by MySQL, PostgreSQL,
1856 Oci8, Oci8po and Interbase drivers. Other drivers might work, depending on
1857 the state of development.</font></p>
1858 <p><font>Note that when an Interbase blob is retrieved using SELECT, it still needs
1859 to be decoded using $connection-&gt;DecodeBlob($blob); to derive the original
1860 value in versions of PHP before 4.1.0.
1861 </font></p><p><font>For PostgreSQL, you can store your blob using blob oid's or as a bytea field.
1862 You can use bytea fields but not blob oid's currently with UpdateBlob( ).
1863 Conversely UpdateBlobFile( ) supports oid's, but not bytea data.<br>
1864 <br>
1865 If you do not pass in an oid, then UpdateBlob() assumes that you are storing
1866 in bytea fields.
1867 <p>If you do not have any blob fields, you can improve you can improve general SQL query performance by disabling blob handling with $connection->disableBlobs = true.
1868 </font></p><p><font><b>UpdateClob<a name="updateclob"></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></font></p>
1869 <font>Allows you to store a clob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where.
1870 Similar to UpdateBlob (see above), but for Character Large OBjects.
1871 </font><p><font> Usage:
1872 </font></p><pre><font> # for oracle<br> $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, empty_clob())');<br> $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');<br> <br> # non oracle databases<br> $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, null)');<br> $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');<br></font></pre>
1873 <p><font><b>UpdateBlobFile<a name="updateblobfile"></a>($table,$column,$path,$where,$blobtype='BLOB')</b></font></p>
1874 <p><font>Similar to UpdateBlob, except that we pass in a file path to where the blob
1875 resides.
1876 </font></p><p><font>For PostgreSQL, if you are using blob oid's, use this interface. This interface
1877 does not support bytea fields.
1878 </font></p><p><font>Returns true if successful, false otherwise.
1879 </font></p><p><font><b>BlobEncode<a name="blobencode" id="blobencode"></a>($blob)</b>
1880 </font></p><p><font>Some databases require blob's to be encoded manually before upload. Note if
1881 you use UpdateBlob( ) or UpdateBlobFile( ) the conversion is done automatically
1882 for you and you do not have to call this function. For PostgreSQL, currently,
1883 BlobEncode() can only be used for bytea fields.
1884 </font></p><p><font>Returns the encoded blob value.
1885 </font></p><p><font>Note that there is a connection property called <em>blobEncodeType</em> which
1886 has 3 legal values:
1887 </font></p><p><font>false - no need to perform encoding or decoding.<br>
1888 'I' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a numeric value
1889 (no need to quote).<br>
1890 'C' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a character value
1891 (requires quoting).
1892 </font></p><p><font>This is purely for documentation purposes, so that programs that accept multiple
1893 database drivers know what is the right thing to do when processing blobs.
1894 </font></p><p><font><strong>BlobDecode<a name="blobdecode"></a>($blob, $maxblobsize = false)</strong>
1895 </font></p><p><font>Some databases require blob's to be decoded manually after doing a select statement.
1896 If the database does not require decoding, then this function will return
1897 the blob unchanged. Currently BlobDecode is only required for one database,
1898 PostgreSQL, and only if you are using blob oid's (if you are using bytea fields,
1899 we auto-decode for you).</font> The default maxblobsize is set in $connection-&gt;maxblobsize, which
1900 is set to 256K in adodb 4.54. </p><p>
1901 In ADOdb 4.54 and later, the blob is the return value. In earlier versions, the blob data is sent to stdout.</p><font>
1902 </font><p></p><pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute("select bloboid from postgres_table where id=$key");<br>$blob = $db-&gt;BlobDecode( reset($rs-&gt;fields) );</font></pre>
1903 <p><font><b>Replace<a name="replace"></a>($table, $arrFields, $keyCols,$autoQuote=false)</b></font></p>
1904 <p><font>Try to update a record, and if the record is not found, an insert statement
1905 is generated and executed. Returns 0 on failure, 1 if update statement worked,
1906 2 if no record was found and the insert was executed successfully. This differs
1907 from MySQL's replace which deletes the record and inserts a new record. This
1908 also means you cannot update the primary key. The only exception to this is
1909 Interbase and its derivitives, which uses delete and insert because of some
1910 Interbase API limitations.
1911 </font></p><p><font>The parameters are $table which is the table name, the $arrFields which is an
1912 associative array where the keys are the field names, and $keyCols is the name
1913 of the primary key, or an array of field names if it is a compound key. If
1914 $autoQuote is set to true, then Replace() will quote all values that are non-numeric;
1915 auto-quoting will not quote nulls. Note that auto-quoting will not work if
1916 you use SQL functions or operators.
1917 </font></p><p><font>Examples:
1918 </font></p><pre><font># single field primary key<br>$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable', <br> array('id'=&gt;1000,'firstname'=&gt;'Harun','lastname'=&gt;'Al-Rashid'),<br> 'id',$autoquote = true); <br># generates UPDATE atable SET firstname='Harun',lastname='Al-Rashid' WHERE id=1000<br># or INSERT INTO atable (id,firstname,lastname) VALUES (1000,'Harun','Al-Rashid')<br><br># compound key<br>$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable2', <br> array('firstname'=&gt;'Harun','lastname'=&gt;'Al-Rashid', 'age' =&gt; 33, 'birthday' =&gt; 'null'),<br> array('lastname','firstname'),<br> $autoquote = true);<br><br># no auto-quoting<br>$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable2', <br> array('firstname'=&gt;"'Harun'",'lastname'=&gt;"'Al-Rashid'", 'age' =&gt; 'null'),<br> array('lastname','firstname')); <br></font></pre>
1919 <p><font><b>AutoExecute<a name="autoexecute"></a>($table, $arrFields, $mode, $where=false, $forceUpdate=true,$magicq=false)</b></font></p>
1920 <p>Since ADOdb 4.56, you can automatically generate and execute INSERTs and UPDATEs on a given table with this
1921 function, which is a wrapper for GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL().
1922 <p>AutoExecute() inserts or updates $table given an array of $arrFields, where the keys are the field names and the array values are the
1923 field values to store. Note that there is some overhead because the table is first queried to extract key information
1924 before the SQL is generated. We generate an INSERT or UPDATE based on $mode (see below).
1925 <p>
1926 Legal values for $mode are
1927 <ul>
1930 </ul>
1931 <p>You have to define the constants DB_AUTOQUERY_UPDATE and DB_AUTOQUERY_INSERT yourself or include adodb-pear.inc.php.
1932 <p>The $where clause is required if $mode == 'UPDATE'. If $forceUpdate=false then we will query the
1933 database first and check if the field value returned by the query matches the current field value; only if they differ do we update that field.
1934 <p>Returns true on success, false on error.
1935 <p>An example of its use is:
1936 <pre>
1937 $record["firstName"] = "Carol";
1938 $record["lasTname"] = "Smith";
1939 $conn->AutoExecute($table,$record,'INSERT');
1940 # executes <i>"INSERT INTO $table (firstName,lasTname) values ('Carol',Smith')"</i>;
1942 $record["firstName"] = "Carol";
1943 $record["lasTname"] = "Jones";
1944 $conn->AutoExecute($table,$record,'UPDATE', "lastname like 'Sm%'");
1945 # executes <i>"UPDATE $table SET firstName='Carol',lasTname='Jones' WHERE lastname like 'Sm%'"</i>;
1946 </pre>
1947 <p>Note: One of the strengths of ADOdb's AutoExecute() is that only valid field names for $table are updated. If $arrFields
1948 contains keys that are invalid field names for $table, they are ignored. There is some overhead in doing this as we have to
1949 query the database to get the field names, but given that you are not directly coding the SQL yourself, you probably aren't interested in
1950 speed at all, but convenience.
1951 <p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.
1952 <p><font><b>GetUpdateSQL<a name="getupdatesql"></a>(&amp;$rs, $arrFields, $forceUpdate=false,$magicq=false, $force=null)</b></font></p>
1953 <p><font>Generate SQL to update a table given a recordset $rs, and the modified fields
1954 of the array $arrFields (which must be an associative array holding the column
1955 names and the new values) are compared with the current recordset. If $forceUpdate
1956 is true, then we also generate the SQL even if $arrFields is identical to
1957 $rs-&gt;fields. Requires the recordset to be associative. $magicq is used
1958 to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled (see qstr()). The field names in the array
1959 are case-insensitive.</font></p>
1960 <font> </font><p><font>Since 4.52, we allow you to pass the $force type parameter, and this overrides the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a>
1961 global variable.
1962 <p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.
1963 </font></p><p><font><b>GetInsertSQL<a name="getinsertsql"></a>(&amp;$rs, $arrFields,$magicq=false,$force_type=false)</b></font></p>
1964 <p><font>Generate SQL to insert into a table given a recordset $rs. Requires the query
1965 to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled
1966 (for qstr()). The field names in the array are case-insensitive.</font></p>
1967 <p>
1968 <font> Since 2.42, you can pass a table name instead of a recordset into
1969 GetInsertSQL (in $rs), and it will generate an insert statement for that table.
1970 </font></p><p><font>Since 4.52, we allow you to pass the $force_type parameter, and this overrides the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a>
1971 global variable.
1972 <p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.
1973 </font></p><p><font><b>PageExecute<a name="pageexecute"></a>($sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b>
1974 </font></p><p><font>Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See <a href="#ex8">Example
1975 8</a>.</font></p>
1977 <p><font><b>CachePageExecute<a name="cachepageexecute"></a>($secs2cache,
1978 $sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b> </font></p>
1979 <p><font>Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See
1980 <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>. Caching version of PageExecute.</font></p>
1981 <font>
1982 </font><p></p>
1983 <p><font><b>Close<a name="close"></a>( )</b></font></p>
1984 <p><font>Close the database connection. PHP4 proudly states that we no longer have to
1985 clean up at the end of the connection because the reference counting mechanism
1986 of PHP4 will automatically clean up for us.</font></p>
1987 <font> </font><p><font><b>StartTrans<a name="starttrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
1988 <font> </font><p><font>Start a monitored transaction. As SQL statements are executed, ADOdb will monitor
1989 for SQL errors, and if any are detected, when CompleteTrans() is called, we auto-rollback.
1990 </font></p><p>
1991 <font> </font></p><p><font> To understand why StartTrans() is superior to BeginTrans(),
1992 let us examine a few ways of using BeginTrans().
1993 The following is the wrong way to use transactions:
1994 </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;CommitTrans();<br></font></pre>
1995 <p><font>because you perform no error checking. It is possible to update table1 and
1996 for the update on table2 to fail. Here is a better way:
1997 </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>$ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>if ($ok) $ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>if ($ok) $DB-&gt;CommitTrans();<br>else $DB-&gt;RollbackTrans();<br></font></pre>
1998 <p><font>Another way is (since ADOdb 2.0):
1999 </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>$ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>if ($ok) $ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;CommitTrans($ok);<br></font></pre>
2000 <p><font> Now it is a headache monitoring $ok all over the place. StartTrans() is an
2001 improvement because it monitors all SQL errors for you. This is particularly
2002 useful if you are calling black-box functions in which SQL queries might be executed.
2003 Also all BeginTrans, CommitTrans and RollbackTrans calls inside a StartTrans block
2004 will be disabled, so even if the black box function does a commit, it will be ignored.
2005 </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;StartTrans();<br>CallBlackBox();<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;CompleteTrans();<br></font></pre>
2006 <p><font>Note that a StartTrans blocks are nestable, the inner blocks are ignored.
2007 </font></p><p><font><b>CompleteTrans<a name="completetrans"></a>($autoComplete=true)</b></font></p>
2008 <font> </font><p><font>Complete a transaction called with StartTrans(). This function monitors
2009 for SQL errors, and will commit if no errors have occured, otherwise it will rollback.
2010 Returns true on commit, false on rollback. If the parameter $autoComplete is true
2011 monitor sql errors and commit and rollback as appropriate. Set $autoComplete to false
2012 to force rollback even if no SQL error detected.
2013 </font></p><p><font><b>FailTrans<a name="failtrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2014 <font> </font><p><font>Fail a transaction started with StartTrans(). The rollback will only occur when
2015 CompleteTrans() is called.
2016 </font></p><p><font><b>HasFailedTrans<a name="hasfailedtrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2017 <font> </font><p><font>Check whether smart transaction has failed,
2018 eg. returns true if there was an error in SQL execution or FailTrans() was called.
2019 If not within smart transaction, returns false.
2020 </font></p><p><font><b>BeginTrans<a name="begintrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2021 <p><font>Begin a transaction. Turns off autoCommit. Returns true if successful. Some
2022 databases will always return false if transaction support is not available.
2023 Any open transactions will be rolled back when the connection is closed. Among the
2024 databases that support transactions are Oracle, PostgreSQL, Interbase, MSSQL, certain
2025 versions of MySQL, DB2, Informix, Sybase, etc.</font></p>
2026 <font> </font><p><font>Note that <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans()</a> and CompleteTrans() is a superior method of
2027 handling transactions, available since ADOdb 3.40. For a explanation, see the <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans()</a> documentation.
2029 </font></p><p><font>You can also use the ADOdb <a href="#errorhandling">error handler</a> to die
2030 and rollback your transactions for you transparently. Some buggy database extensions
2031 are known to commit all outstanding tranasactions, so you might want to explicitly
2032 do a $DB-&gt;RollbackTrans() in your error handler for safety.
2033 </font></p><h4><font>Detecting Transactions</font></h4>
2034 <font> </font><p><font>Since ADOdb 2.50, you are able to detect when you are inside a transaction. Check
2035 that $connection-&gt;transCnt &gt; 0. This variable is incremented whenever BeginTrans() is called,
2036 and decremented whenever RollbackTrans() or CommitTrans() is called.
2037 </font></p><p><font><b>CommitTrans<a name="committrans"></a>($ok=true)</b></font></p>
2038 <p><font>End a transaction successfully. Returns true if successful. If the database
2039 does not support transactions, will return true also as data is always committed.
2040 </font></p>
2041 <p><font>If you pass the parameter $ok=false, the data is rolled back. See example in
2042 BeginTrans().</font></p>
2043 <p><font><b>RollbackTrans<a name="rollbacktrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2044 <p><font>End a transaction, rollback all changes. Returns true if successful. If the
2045 database does not support transactions, will return false as data is never rollbacked.
2046 </font></p>
2048 <p><font><b>SetTransactionMode<a name="SetTransactionMode"></a>($mode )</b></font></p>
2049 <p>SetTransactionMode allows you to pass in the transaction mode to use for all subsequent transactions.
2050 Note: if you have persistent connections and using mssql or mysql, you might have to explicitly reset your transaction mode at the beginning of each page request.
2051 This is only supported in postgresql, mssql, mysql with InnoDB and oci8 currently. For example:
2052 <pre>
2053 $db->SetTransactionMode("SERIALIZABLE");
2054 $db->BeginTrans();
2055 $db->Execute(...); $db->Execute(...);
2056 $db->CommiTrans();
2058 $db->SetTransactionMode(""); // restore to default
2059 $db->StartTrans();
2060 $db->Execute(...); $db->Execute(...);
2061 $db->CompleteTrans();
2062 </pre>
2064 <p>Supported values to pass in:
2065 <ul>
2066 <li>READ UNCOMMITTED (allows dirty reads, but fastest)
2067 <li>READ COMMITTED (default postgres, mssql and oci8)
2068 <li>REPEATABLE READ (default mysql)
2069 <li>SERIALIZABLE (slowest and most restrictive)
2070 </ul>
2071 <p>You can also pass in database specific values such as 'SNAPSHOT' for mssql or 'READ ONLY' for oci8/postgres.
2072 <p>See transaction levels for <a href=http://www.postgresql.org/docs/8.1/interactive/sql-set-transaction.html>PostgreSQL</a>,
2073 <a href=http://www.stanford.edu/dept/itss/docs/oracle/10g/server.101/b10759/statements_10005.htm>Oracle</a>,
2074 <a href=http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/set-transaction.html>MySQL</a>, and
2075 <a href=http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-US/ms173763.aspx>MS SQL Server</a>.
2076 <p><font><b>GetAssoc<a name="getassoc1"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false,$force_array=false,$first2cols=false)</b></font></p>
2077 <p><font>Returns an associative array for the given query $sql with optional bind parameters
2078 in $inputarr. If the number of columns returned is greater to two, a 2-dimensional
2079 array is returned, with the first column of the recordset becomes the keys
2080 to the rest of the rows. If the columns is equal to two, a 1-dimensional array
2081 is created, where the the keys directly map to the values (unless $force_array
2082 is set to true, when an array is created for each value).
2083 </font></p><p><font> Examples:<a name="getassocex"></a></font></p>
2085 <p><font>We have the following data in a recordset:</font></p>
2086 <p><font>row1: Apple, Fruit, Edible<br>
2087 row2: Cactus, Plant, Inedible<br>
2088 row3: Rose, Flower, Edible</font></p>
2089 <p><font>GetAssoc will generate the following 2-dimensional associative
2090 array:</font></p>
2091 <p><font>Apple =&gt; array[Fruit, Edible]<br>
2092 Cactus =&gt; array[Plant, Inedible]<br>
2093 Rose =&gt; array[Flower,Edible]</font></p>
2094 <p><font>If the dataset is:</font></p>
2095 <p><font>row1: Apple, Fruit<br>
2096 row2: Cactus, Plant<br>
2097 row3: Rose, Flower </font></p>
2098 <p><font>GetAssoc will generate the following 1-dimensional associative
2099 array (with $force_array==false):</font></p>
2100 <p><font>Apple =&gt; Fruit</font><br>
2101 Cactus=&gt;Plant<br>
2102 Rose=&gt;Flower </p>
2103 <p><font>The function returns:</font></p>
2104 <p><font>The associative array, or false if an error occurs.</font></p>
2105 <font>
2106 <p><b>CacheGetAssoc<a name="cachegetassoc"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false,$force_array=false,$first2cols=false)</b></p>
2107 </font>
2108 <p><font>Caching version of <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a> function above.
2109 </font></p><p><font><b>GetOne<a name="getone"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
2110 <p><font>Executes the SQL and returns the first field of the first row. The recordset
2111 and remaining rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occur, false
2112 is returned.</font></p>
2113 <p><font><b>GetRow<a name="getrow"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
2114 <p><font>Executes the SQL and returns the first row as an array. The recordset and remaining
2115 rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is returned.</font></p>
2116 <p><font><b>GetAll<a name="getall"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
2118 <p>Executes the SQL and returns the all the rows as a 2-dimensional
2119 array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs,
2120 false is returned. <i>GetArray</i> is a synonym for <i>GetAll</i>.</p>
2121 <p><b>GetCol<a name="getcol"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></p>
2123 <p><font>Executes the SQL and returns all elements of the first column as a
2124 1-dimensional array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs,
2125 false is returned.</font></p>
2126 <p><font><b>CacheGetOne<a name="cachegetone"></a>([$secs2cache,]
2127 $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetRow<a name="cachegetrow"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetAll<a name="cachegetall"></a>([$secs2cache,]
2128 $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetCol<a name="cachegetcol"></a>([$secs2cache,]
2129 $sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></font></p>
2130 <font>
2131 </font><p><font>Similar to above Get* functions, except that the recordset is serialized and
2132 cached in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory for $secs2cache seconds. Good for speeding
2133 up queries on rarely changing data. Note that the $secs2cache parameter is optional.
2134 If omitted, we use the value in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds,
2135 or 1 hour).</font></p>
2136 <p><font><b>Prepare<a name="prepare"></a>($sql )</b></font></p>
2138 <p><font>Prepares (compiles) an SQL query for repeated execution. Bind parameters
2139 are denoted by ?, except for the oci8 driver, which uses the traditional Oracle :varname
2140 convention.
2141 </font></p>
2142 <p><font>Returns an array containing the original sql statement
2143 in the first array element; the remaining elements of the array are driver dependent.
2144 If there is an error, or we are emulating Prepare( ), we return the original
2145 $sql string. This is because all error-handling has been centralized in Execute(
2146 ).</font></p>
2147 <p><font>Prepare( ) cannot be used with functions that use SQL
2148 query rewriting techniques, e.g. PageExecute( ) and SelectLimit( ).</font></p>
2149 <p>Example:</p>
2150 <pre><font>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare('insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)');<br>for ($i=0; $i &lt; $max; $i++)<br></font> $DB-&gt;<font>Execute($stmt,array((string) rand(), $i));<br></font></pre>
2151 <font>
2152 </font><p><font>Also see InParameter(), OutParameter() and PrepareSP() below. Only supported internally by interbase,
2153 oci8 and selected ODBC-based drivers, otherwise it is emulated. There is no
2154 performance advantage to using Prepare() with emulation.
2155 </font></p><p><font> Important: Due to limitations or bugs in PHP, if you are getting errors when
2156 you using prepared queries, try setting $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false before preparing.
2157 This behaviour has been observed with ODBC.
2158 </font></p><p><font><b>IfNull<a name="ifnull"></a>($field, $nullReplacementValue)</b></font></p>
2159 <p><font>Portable IFNULL function (NVL in Oracle). Returns a string that represents
2160 the function that checks whether a $field is null for the given database, and
2161 if null, change the value returned to $nullReplacementValue. Eg.</font></p>
2162 <pre><font>$sql = <font color="#993300">'SELECT '</font>.$db-&gt;IfNull('name', <font color="#993300">"'- unknown -'"</font>).<font color="#993300"> ' FROM table'</font>;</font></pre>
2164 <p><font><b>length<a name="length"></a></b></font></p>
2165 <p><font>This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have "length" and others "len"
2166 as the function to measure the length of a string. To use this property:
2167 </font></p><pre><font> $sql = <font color="#993300">"SELECT "</font>.$db-&gt;length.<font color="#993300">"(field) from table"</font>;<br> $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br></font></pre>
2169 <p><font><b>random<a name="random"></a></b></font></p>
2170 <p><font>This is not a function, but a property. This is a string that holds the sql to
2171 generate a random number between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive.
2173 </font></p><p><font><b>substr<a name="substr"></a></b></font></p>
2174 <p><font>This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have "substr" and others "substring"
2175 as the function to retrieve a sub-string. To use this property:
2176 </font></p><pre><font> $sql = <font color="#993300">"SELECT "</font>.$db-&gt;substr.<font color="#993300">"(field, $offset, $length) from table"</font>;<br> $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br></font></pre>
2177 <p><font>For all databases, the 1st parameter of <i>substr</i> is the field, the 2nd is the
2178 offset (1-based) to the beginning of the sub-string, and the 3rd is the length of the sub-string.
2181 </font></p><p><font><b>Param<a name="param"></a>($name)</b></font></p>
2182 <p><font>Generates a bind placeholder portably. For most databases, the bind placeholder
2183 is "?". However some databases use named bind parameters such as Oracle, eg
2184 ":somevar". This allows us to portably define an SQL statement with bind parameters:
2185 </font></p><pre><font>$sql = <font color="#993300">'insert into table (col1,col2) values ('</font>.$DB-&gt;Param('a').<font color="#993300">','</font>.$DB-&gt;Param('b').<font color="#993300">')'</font>;<br><font color="#006600"># generates 'insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)'<br># or 'insert into table (col1,col2) values (:a,:b)</font>'<br>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare($sql);<br>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt,array('one','two'));<br></font></pre>
2186 <font> </font>
2187 <p></p>
2188 <p><font><b>PrepareSP</b><b><a name="preparesp"></a></b><b>($sql,
2189 $cursor=false )</b></font></p>
2190 <p><font>When calling stored procedures in mssql and oci8 (oracle),
2191 and you might want to directly bind to parameters that return values, or
2192 for special LOB handling. PrepareSP() allows you to do so. </font></p>
2193 <p><font>Returns the same array or $sql string as Prepare( )
2194 above. If you do not need to bind to return values, you should use Prepare(
2195 ) instead.</font></p>
2196 <p><font>The 2nd parameter, $cursor is not used except with oci8.
2197 Setting it to true will force OCINewCursor to be called; this is to support
2198 output REF CURSORs. </font></p>
2199 <p><font>For examples of usage of PrepareSP( ), see InParameter(
2200 ) below. </font></p>
2201 <p><font>Note: in the mssql driver, preparing stored procedures
2202 requires a special function call, mssql_init( ), which is called by this
2203 function. PrepareSP( ) is available in all other drivers, and is emulated
2204 by calling Prepare( ). </font></p>
2205 <p><font><b> InParameter<a name="inparameter"></a>($stmt, $var,
2206 $name, $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></font></p>
2207 <font>Binds a PHP variable as input to a stored procedure variable.
2208 The parameter <i>$stmt</i> is the value returned by PrepareSP(), <i>$var</i> is
2209 the PHP variable you want to bind, $name is the name of the stored procedure
2210 variable. Optional is <i>$maxLen</i>, the maximum length of the data to bind,
2211 and $type which is database dependant. Consult <a href="http://php.net/mssql_bind">mssql_bind</a> and <a href="http://php.net/ocibindbyname">ocibindbyname</a> docs
2212 at php.net for more info on legal values for $type. </font>
2213 <p>
2214 <font>InParameter() is a wrapper function that calls Parameter()
2215 with $isOutput=false. The advantage of this function is that it is self-documenting,
2216 because the $isOutput parameter is no longer needed. Only for mssql and oci8
2217 currently. </font></p>
2218 <p><font>Here is an example using oci8: </font></p>
2219 <pre><font><font color="green"># For oracle, Prepare and PrepareSP are identical</font>
2220 $stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(
2221 <font color="#993300">"declare RETVAL integer; <br> begin<br> :RETVAL := </font><font color="#993300">SP_RUNSOMETHING</font><font color="#993300">(:myid,:group);<br> end;"</font>);<br>$db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$id,'myid');<br>$db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$group,'group',64);<br>$db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL');<br>$db-&gt;Execute($stmt);<br></font></pre>
2222 <p><font> The same example using mssql:</font></p>
2223 <font>
2224 </font><pre><font><font color="green"># @RETVAL = SP_RUNSOMETHING @myid,@group</font>
2225 $stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(<font color="#993333">'<font color="#993300">SP_RUNSOMETHING</font>'</font>); <br><font color="green"># note that the parameter name does not have @ in front!</font>
2226 $db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$id,'myid');
2227 $db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$group,'group',64);
2228 <font color="green"># return value in mssql - RETVAL is hard-coded name</font> <br>$db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL');<br>$db-&gt;Execute($stmt); </font></pre>
2230 <p><font>Note that the only difference between the oci8 and mssql implementations is $sql.</font></p>
2231 <p>
2232 <font> If $type parameter is set to false, in mssql, $type will be dynamicly determined
2233 based on the type of the PHP variable passed <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">(string
2234 =&gt; SQLCHAR, boolean =&gt;SQLINT1, integer =&gt;SQLINT4 or float/double=&gt;SQLFLT8)</font>.
2235 </font></p><p><font>
2236 In oci8, $type can be set to OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File),
2237 OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). To
2238 pass in a null, use<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> $db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,
2239 $null=null, 'param')</font>.
2240 </font></p><p><font><b> OutParameter<a name="outparameter"></a>($stmt, $var, $name,
2241 $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></font></p>
2242 <font> Binds a PHP variable as output from a stored procedure variable. The parameter <i>$stmt</i>
2243 is the value returned by PrepareSP(), <i>$var</i> is the PHP variable you want to bind, <i>$name</i>
2244 is the name of the stored procedure variable. Optional is <i>$maxLen</i>, the maximum length of the
2245 data to bind, and <i>$type</i> which is database dependant.
2246 </font><p>
2247 <font> OutParameter() is a wrapper function that calls Parameter() with $isOutput=true.
2248 The advantage of this function is that it is self-documenting, because
2249 the $isOutput parameter is no longer needed. Only for mssql
2250 and oci8 currently.
2251 </font></p><p>
2252 <font>For an example, see <a href="#inparameter">InParameter</a>.
2254 </font></p><p><font><b> Parameter<a name="parameter"></a>($stmt, $var, $name, $isOutput=false,
2255 $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></font></p>
2256 <p><font>Note: This function is deprecated, because of the new InParameter() and OutParameter() functions.
2257 These are superior because they are self-documenting, unlike Parameter().
2258 </font></p><p><font>Adds a bind parameter suitable for return values or special data handling (eg.
2259 LOBs) after a statement has been prepared using PrepareSP(). Only for mssql
2260 and oci8 currently. The parameters are:<br>
2261 <br>
2262 $<i><b>stmt</b></i> Statement returned by Prepare() or PrepareSP().<br>
2263 $<i><b>var</b></i> PHP variable to bind to. Make sure you pre-initialize it!<br>
2264 $<i><b>name</b></i> Name of stored procedure variable name to bind to.<br>
2265 [$<i><b>isOutput</b></i>] Indicates direction of parameter 0/false=IN 1=OUT
2266 2= IN/OUT. This is ignored in oci8 as this driver auto-detects the direction.<br>
2267 [$<b>maxLen</b>] Maximum length of the parameter variable.<br>
2268 [$<b>type</b>] Consult <a href="http://php.net/mssql_bind">mssql_bind</a> and
2269 <a href="http://php.net/ocibindbyname">ocibindbyname</a> docs at php.net for
2270 more info on legal values for type.</font></p>
2271 <p><font>Lastly, in oci8, bind parameters can be reused without calling PrepareSP( )
2272 or Parameters again. This is not possible with mssql. An oci8 example:</font></p>
2273 <pre><font>$id = 0; $i = 0;<br>$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP( <font color="#993300">"update table set val=:i where id=:id"</font>);<br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$id,'id');<br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$i, 'i');<br>for ($cnt=0; $cnt &lt; 1000; $cnt++) {<br> $id = $cnt; <br> $i = $cnt * $cnt; <font color="green"># works with oci8!</font>
2274 $db-&gt;Execute($stmt); <br>}</font></pre>
2275 <p><font><b>Bind<a name="bind"></a>($stmt, $var, $size=4001, $type=false, $name=false)</b></font></p>
2277 <p><font>This is a low-level function supported only by the oci8
2278 driver. <b>Avoid using</b> unless you only want to support Oracle. The Parameter(
2279 ) function is the recommended way to go with bind variables.</font></p>
2280 <p><font>Bind( ) allows you to use bind variables in your sql
2281 statement. This binds a PHP variable to a name defined in an Oracle sql statement
2282 that was previously prepared using Prepare(). Oracle named variables begin with
2283 a colon, and ADOdb requires the named variables be called :0, :1, :2, :3, etc.
2284 The first invocation of Bind() will match :0, the second invocation will match
2285 :1, etc. Binding can provide 100% speedups for insert, select and update statements.
2286 </font></p>
2287 <p>The other variables, $size sets the buffer size for data storage, $type is
2288 the optional descriptor type OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File),
2289 OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID).
2290 Lastly, instead of using the default :0, :1, etc names, you can define your
2291 own bind-name using $name.
2292 </p><p><font>The following example shows 3 bind variables being used:
2293 p1, p2 and p3. These variables are bound to :0, :1 and :2.</font></p>
2294 <pre>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare("insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:0, :1, :2)");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1);<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2);<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3);<br>for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { <br> $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;<br> $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);<br>}</pre>
2295 <p>You can also use named variables:</p>
2296 <pre>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare("insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:name0, :name1, :name2)");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1, "name0");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2, "name1");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3, "name2");<br>for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { <br> $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;<br> $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);<br>}</pre>
2297 <p><b>LogSQL($enable=true)<a name="logsql"></a></b></p>
2298 Call this method to install a SQL logging and timing function (using fnExecute).
2299 Then all SQL statements are logged into an adodb_logsql table in a database. If
2300 the adodb_logsql table does not exist, ADOdb will create the table if you have
2301 the appropriate permissions. Returns the previous logging value (true for enabled,
2302 false for disabled). Here are samples of the DDL for selected databases:
2303 <p>
2304 </p><pre> <b>mysql:</b>
2305 CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2306 created datetime NOT NULL,
2307 sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2308 sql1 text NOT NULL,
2309 params text NOT NULL,
2310 tracer text NOT NULL,
2311 timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2312 )
2314 <b>postgres:</b>
2315 CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2316 created timestamp NOT NULL,
2317 sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2318 sql1 text NOT NULL,
2319 params text NOT NULL,
2320 tracer text NOT NULL,
2321 timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2322 )
2324 <b>mssql:</b>
2325 CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2326 created datetime NOT NULL,
2327 sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2328 sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,
2329 params varchar(3000) NOT NULL,
2330 tracer varchar(500) NOT NULL,
2331 timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2332 )
2334 <b>oci8:</b>
2335 CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2336 created date NOT NULL,
2337 sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2338 sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,
2339 params varchar(4000),
2340 tracer varchar(4000),
2341 timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2342 )
2343 </pre>
2344 Usage:
2345 <pre> $conn-&gt;LogSQL(); // turn on logging<br> :<br> $conn-&gt;Execute(...);<br> :<br> $conn-&gt;LogSQL(false); // turn off logging<br> <br> # output summary of SQL logging results<br> $perf = NewPerfMonitor($conn);<br> echo $perf-&gt;SuspiciousSQL();<br> echo $perf-&gt;ExpensiveSQL();<br></pre>
2346 <p>One limitation of logging is that rollback also prevents SQL from being logged.
2347 </p><p>
2348 If you prefer to use another name for the table used to store the SQL, you can override it by calling
2349 adodb_perf::table($tablename), where $tablename is the new table name (you will still need to manually
2350 create the table yourself). An example:
2351 </p><pre> include('adodb.inc.php');<br> include('adodb-perf.inc.php');<br> adodb_perf::table('my_logsql_table');<br></pre>
2352 Also see <a href="docs-perf.htm">Performance Monitor</a>.
2353 <p><font><b>fnExecute and fnCacheExecute properties<a name="fnexecute" id="fnexecute"></a></b></font></p>
2354 <p>These two properties allow you to define bottleneck functions for all sql statements
2355 processed by ADOdb. This allows you to perform statistical analysis and query-rewriting
2356 of your sql.
2357 </p><p><b>Examples of fnExecute</b></p>
2358 <p>Here is an example of using fnExecute, to count all cached queries and non-cached
2359 queries, you can do this:</p>
2360 <pre><font color="#006600"># $db is the connection object</font>
2361 function &CountExecs($db, $sql, $inputarray)
2362 {
2363 global $EXECS;
2365 if (!is_array(inputarray)) $EXECS++;
2366 <font color="#006600"># handle 2-dimensional input arrays</font>
2367 else if (is_array(reset($inputarray))) $EXECS += sizeof($inputarray);
2368 else $EXECS++;
2370 <font color="#006600"># in PHP4.4 and PHP5, we need to return a value by reference</font>
2371 $null = null;
2372 return $null;
2373 }
2375 <font color="#006600"># $db is the connection object</font>
2376 function CountCachedExecs($db, $secs2cache, $sql, $inputarray)
2377 {<br>global $CACHED; $CACHED++;<br>}<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>$db-&gt;Connect(...);<br>$db-&gt;<strong>fnExecute</strong> = 'CountExecs';<br>$db-&gt;<strong>fnCacheExecute</strong> = 'CountCachedExecs';<br> :<br> :<br><font color="#006600"># After many sql statements:</font>`<br>printf("&lt;p&gt;Total queries=%d; total cached=%d&lt;/p&gt;",$EXECS+$CACHED, $CACHED);<br></pre>
2378 <p>The fnExecute function is called before the sql is parsed and executed, so
2379 you can perform a query rewrite. If you are passing in a prepared statement,
2380 then $sql is an array (see <a href="#prepare">Prepare</a>). The fnCacheExecute
2381 function is only called if the recordset returned was cached.<font>
2382 The function parameters match the Execute and CacheExecute functions respectively,
2383 except that $this (the connection object) is passed as the first parameter.</font></p>
2384 <p>Since ADOdb 3.91, the behaviour of fnExecute varies depending on whether the
2385 defined function returns a value. If it does not return a value, then the $sql
2386 is executed as before. This is useful for query rewriting or counting sql queries.
2387 </p><p> On the other hand, you might want to replace the Execute function with one
2388 of your own design. If this is the case, then have your function return a value.
2389 If a value is returned, that value is returned immediately, without any further
2390 processing. This is used internally by ADOdb to implement LogSQL() functionality.
2391 </p>
2392 <p>
2393 </p><hr />
2394 <h3><font>ADOConnection Utility Functions</font></h3>
2395 <p><font><b>BlankRecordSet<a name="blankrecordset"></a>([$queryid])</b></font></p>
2396 <p><font>No longer available - removed since 1.99.</font></p>
2397 <p><font><b>Concat<a name="concat"></a>($s1,$s2,....)</b></font></p>
2398 <p><font>Generates the sql string used to concatenate $s1, $s2, etc together. Uses the
2399 string in the concat_operator field to generate the concatenation. Override
2400 this function if a concatenation operator is not used, eg. MySQL.</font></p>
2401 <p><font>Returns the concatenated string.</font></p>
2402 <p><font><b>DBDate<a name="dbdate"></a>($date)</b></font></p>
2403 <p><font>Format the $<b>date</b> in the format the database accepts. This is used in
2404 INSERT/UPDATE statements; for SELECT statements, use <a href="#sqldate">SQLDate</a>.
2405 The $<b>date</b> parameter can be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format
2406 Y-m-d. Uses the fmtDate field, which holds the format to use. If null or false
2407 or '' is passed in, it will be converted to an SQL null.</font></p>
2408 <p><font>Returns the date as a quoted string.</font></p>
2409 <pre>
2410 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ".$db->DBDate("$year-$month-$day");
2411 $db->Execute($sql);
2412 </pre>
2413 <p><font><b>BindDate<a name="binddate"></a>($date)</b></font></p>
2414 <p><font>Format the $<b>date</b> in the bind format the database accepts. Normally
2415 this means that the date string is not quoted, unlike DBDate, which quotes the string.
2416 <pre>
2417 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ".$db->Param('0');
2418 // or
2419 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ?";
2420 $db->Execute($sql,array($db->BindDate("$year-$month-$day"));
2421 </pre>
2422 <p><font><b>DBTimeStamp<a name="dbtimestamp"></a>($ts)</b></font></p>
2423 <p><font>Format the timestamp $<b>ts</b> in the format the database accepts; this can
2424 be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d H:i:s. Uses the fmtTimeStamp
2425 field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed in, it
2426 will be converted to an SQL null.</font></p>
2427 <p><font>Returns the timestamp as a quoted string.</font></p>
2428 <pre>
2429 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ".$db->DBTimeStamp("$year-$month-$day $hr:$min:$secs");
2430 $db->Execute($sql);
2431 </pre>
2432 <p><font><b>BindTimeStamp<a name="bindtimestamp"></a>($ts)</b></font></p>
2433 <p><font>Format the timestamp $<b>ts</b> in the bind format the database accepts. Normally
2434 this means that the timestamp string is not quoted, unlike DBTimeStamp, which quotes the string.
2435 <pre>
2436 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ".$db->Param('0');
2437 // or
2438 $sql = "select * from atable where created > ?";
2439 $db->Execute($sql,array($db->BindTimeStamp("$year-$month-$day $hr:$min:$secs"));
2440 </pre>
2441 <p><font><b>qstr<a name="qstr"></a>($s,[$magic_quotes_enabled</b>=false]<b>)</b></font></p>
2442 <p><font>Quotes a string to be sent to the database. The $<b>magic_quotes_enabled</b>
2443 parameter may look funny, but the idea is if you are quoting a string extracted
2444 from a POST/GET variable, then pass get_magic_quotes_gpc() as the second parameter.
2445 This will ensure that the variable is not quoted twice, once by <i>qstr</i>
2446 and once by the <i>magic_quotes_gpc</i>.</font></p>
2447 <p><font>Eg.<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> $s = $db-&gt;qstr(HTTP_GET_VARS['name'],get_magic_quotes_gpc());</font></font></p>
2448 <p><font>Returns the quoted string.</font></p>
2449 <p><font><b>Quote<a name="quote"></a>($s)</b></font></p>
2450 <p><font>Quotes the string $s, escaping the database specific quote character as appropriate.
2451 Formerly checked magic quotes setting, but this was disabled since 3.31 for
2452 compatibility with PEAR DB.
2453 </font></p><p><font><b>Affected_Rows<a name="affected_rows"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2454 <p><font>Returns the number of rows affected by a update or delete statement. Returns
2455 false if function not supported.</font></p>
2456 <p><font>Not supported by interbase/firebird currently. </font></p>
2457 <p><font><b>Insert_ID<a name="inserted_id"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2458 <p><font>Returns the last autonumbering ID inserted. Returns false if function not supported.
2459 </font></p>
2460 <p><font>Only supported by databases that support auto-increment or object id's, such
2461 as PostgreSQL, MySQL and MS SQL Server currently. PostgreSQL returns the OID, which
2462 can change on a database reload.</font></p>
2463 <p><font><b>RowLock<a name="rowlock"></a>($table,$where)</b></font></p>
2464 <p><font>Lock a table row for the duration of a transaction. For example to lock record $id in table1:
2465 </font></p><pre><font> $DB-&gt;StartTrans();<br> $DB-&gt;RowLock("table1","rowid=$id");<br> $DB-&gt;Execute($sql1);<br> $DB-&gt;Execute($sql2);<br> $DB-&gt;CompleteTrans();<br></font></pre>
2466 <p><font>Supported in db2, interbase, informix, mssql, oci8, postgres, sybase.
2467 </font></p><p><font><b>MetaDatabases<a name="metadatabases"></a>()</b></font></p>
2468 <p><font>Returns a list of databases available on the server as an array. You have to
2469 connect to the server first. Only available for ODBC, MySQL and ADO.</font></p>
2470 <p><font><b>MetaTables<a name="metatables"></a>($ttype = false, $showSchema = false,
2471 $mask=false)</b></font></p>
2472 <p><font>Returns an array of tables and views for the current database as an array.
2473 The array should exclude system catalog tables if possible. To only show tables,
2474 use $db-&gt;MetaTables('TABLES'). To show only views, use $db-&gt;MetaTables('VIEWS').
2475 The $showSchema parameter currently works only for DB2, and when set to true,
2476 will add the schema name to the table, eg. "SCHEMA.TABLE". </font></p>
2477 <p><font>You can define a mask for matching. For example, setting $mask = 'TMP%' will
2478 match all tables that begin with 'TMP'. Currently only mssql, oci8, odbc_mssql
2479 and postgres* support $mask.
2480 </font></p><p><font><b>MetaColumns<a name="metacolumns"></a>($table,$notcasesensitive=true)</b></font></p>
2481 <p><font>Returns an array of ADOFieldObject's, one field object for every column of
2482 $table. A field object is a class instance with (name, type, max_length) defined.
2483 Currently Sybase does not recognise date types, and ADO cannot identify
2484 the correct data type (so we default to varchar).
2485 </font></p><p><font> The $notcasesensitive parameter determines whether we uppercase or lowercase the table name to normalize it
2486 (required for some databases). Does not work with MySQL ISAM tables.
2487 </font></p><p><font>For schema support, pass in the $table parameter, "$schema.$tablename". This is only
2488 supported for selected databases.
2489 </font></p><p><font><b>MetaColumnNames<a name="metacolumnames"></a>($table,$numericIndex=false)</b></font></p>
2490 <p><font>Returns an array of column names for $table. Since ADOdb 4.22, this is an associative array, with the
2491 keys in uppercase. Set $numericIndex=true if you want the old behaviour of numeric indexes (since 4.23).
2492 </font></p><p>
2493 <font>e.g. array('FIELD1' =&gt; 'Field1', 'FIELD2'=&gt;'Field2')
2494 </font></p><p>
2495 </p><p><font><b>MetaPrimaryKeys<a name="metaprimarykeys"></a>($table,
2496 $owner=false)</b></font>
2497 </p>
2498 <p><font>Returns an array containing column names that are the
2499 primary keys of $table. Supported by mysql, odbc (including db2, odbc_mssql,
2500 etc), mssql, postgres, interbase/firebird, oci8 currently. </font></p>
2501 <p><font>Views (and some tables) have primary keys, but sometimes this information is not available from the
2502 database. You can define a function ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys($databaseType, $database, $view, $owner) that
2503 should return an array containing the fields that make up the primary key. If that function exists,
2504 it will be called when MetaPrimaryKeys() cannot find a primary key for a table or view.
2505 </font></p><pre><font>// In this example: dbtype = 'oci8', $db = 'mydb', $view = 'dataView', $owner = false <br>function ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys($dbtype,$db,$view,$owner)<br>{<br> switch(strtoupper($view)) {<br> case 'DATAVIEW': return array('DATAID');<br> default: return false;<br> }<br>}<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('oci8');<br>$db-&gt;Connect('localhost','root','','mydb'); <br>$db-&gt;MetaPrimaryKeys('dataView');<br></font></pre>
2506 <p><font><b>ServerInfo<a name="serverinfo" id="serverinfo"></a>()</b></font>
2507 </p>
2508 <p><font>Returns an array of containing two elements 'description'
2509 and 'version'. The 'description' element contains the string description of
2510 the database. The 'version' naturally holds the version number (which is also
2511 a string).</font></p>
2512 <p><font><b>MetaForeignKeys<a name="metaforeignkeys"></a>($table, $owner=false, $upper=false)</b>
2513 </font></p><p><font>Returns an associate array of foreign keys, or false if not supported. For
2514 example, if table employee has a foreign key where employee.deptkey points to
2515 dept_table.deptid, and employee.posn=posn_table.postionid and employee.poscategory=posn_table.category,
2516 then $conn-&gt;MetaForeignKeys('employee') will return
2517 </font></p><pre><font> array(<br> 'dept_table' =&gt; array('deptkey=deptid'),<br> 'posn_table' =&gt; array('posn=positionid','poscategory=category')<br> )<br></font></pre>
2518 <p><font>The optional schema or owner can be defined in $owner. If $upper is true, then
2519 the table names (array keys) are upper-cased.
2520 </font></p><hr />
2521 <h2><font>ADORecordSet<a name="adorecordset"></a></font></h2>
2522 <p><font>When an SQL statement successfully is executed by <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection-&gt;Execute($sql),</font>an
2523 ADORecordSet object is returned. This object contains a virtual cursor so we
2524 can move from row to row, functions to obtain information about the columns
2525 and column types, and helper functions to deal with formating the results to
2526 show to the user.</font></p>
2527 <h3><font>ADORecordSet Fields</font></h3>
2528 <p><font><b>fields: </b>Array containing the current row. This is not associative, but
2529 is an indexed array from 0 to columns-1. See also the function <b><a href="#fields">Fields</a></b>,
2530 which behaves like an associative array.</font></p>
2531 <p><font><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database.
2532 Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</font></p>
2533 <p><font><b>blobSize</b>: Maximum size of a char, string or varchar object before it
2534 is treated as a Blob (Blob's should be shown with textarea's). See the <a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>
2535 function.</font></p>
2536 <p><font><b>sql</b>: Holds the sql statement used to generate this record set.</font></p>
2537 <p><font><b>canSeek</b>: Set to true if Move( ) function works.</font></p>
2538 <p><font><b>EOF</b>: True if we have scrolled the cursor past the last record.</font></p>
2539 <h3><font>ADORecordSet Functions</font></h3>
2540 <p><font><b>ADORecordSet( )</b></font></p>
2541 <p><font>Constructer. Normally you never call this function yourself.</font></p>
2542 <p><font><b>GetAssoc<a name="getassoc"></a>([$force_array])</b></font></p>
2543 <p><font>Generates an associative array from the recordset. Note that is this function
2544 is also <a href="#getassoc1">available</a> in the connection object. More details
2545 can be found there.</font></p>
2546 <font> </font>
2547 <p><font><b>GetArray<a name="getarray"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></font></p>
2548 <p><font>Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current
2549 cursor position, indexed from 0 to $number_of_rows - 1. If $number_of_rows
2550 is undefined, till EOF.</font></p>
2551 <p><font><b>GetRows<a name="getrows"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></font></p>
2552 <font>Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current
2553 cursor position. Synonym for GetArray() for compatibility with Microsoft ADO. </font>
2554 <p><font> <b>GetMenu<a name="getmenu"></a>($name, [$default_str=''],
2555 [$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></font></p>
2556 <p><font>Generate a HTML menu (&lt;select&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;/select&gt;).
2557 The first column of the recordset (fields[0]) will hold the string to display
2558 in the option tags. If the recordset has more than 1 column, the second column
2559 (fields[1]) is the value to send back to the web server.. The menu will be
2560 given the name $<i>name</i>. </font></p>
2561 <p><font> If $<i>default_str</i> is defined, then if $<i>default_str</i> ==
2562 fields[0], that field is selected. If $<i>blank1stItem</i> is true, the first
2563 option is empty. You can also set the first option strings by setting $blank1stItem
2564 = "$value:$text".</font></p>
2565 <p><font>$<i>Default_str</i> can be array for a multiple select
2566 listbox.</font></p>
2567 <p><font>To get a listbox, set the $<i>size</i> to a non-zero
2568 value (or pass $default_str as an array). If $<i>multiple_select</i> is true
2569 then a listbox will be generated with $<i>size</i> items (or if $size==0,
2570 then 5 items) visible, and we will return an array to a server. Lastly use
2571 $<i>moreAttr </i> to add additional attributes such as javascript or styles. </font></p>
2572 <p><font>Menu Example 1: <code>GetMenu('menu1','A',true)</code> will
2573 generate a menu:
2574 <select name="menu1"><option> </option><option value="1" selected="selected">A </option><option value="2">B </option><option value="3">C </option></select>
2575 for the data (A,1), (B,2), (C,3). Also see <a href="#ex5">example 5</a>.</font></p>
2576 <p><font>Menu Example 2: For the same data, <code>GetMenu('menu1',array('A','B'),false)</code> will
2577 generate a menu with both A and B selected: <br>
2578 <select name="menu1" multiple="multiple" size="3"><option value="1" selected="selected">A </option><option value="2" selected="selected">B </option><option value="3">C </option></select>
2579 </font></p>
2580 <p><font> <b>GetMenu2<a name="getmenu2"></a>($name, [$default_str=''],
2581 [$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></font></p>
2582 <p><font>This is nearly identical to GetMenu, except that the
2583 $<i>default_str</i> is matched to fields[1] (the option values).</font></p>
2584 <p><font>Menu Example 3: Given the data in menu example 2, <code>GetMenu2('menu1',array('1','2'),false)</code> will
2585 generate a menu with both A and B selected in menu example 2, but this time
2586 the selection is based on the 2nd column, which holds the values to return
2587 to the Web server. </font></p>
2588 <p><font><b>UserDate<a name="userdate"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></font></p>
2589 <p><font>Converts the date string $<i>str</i> to another format.
2590 The date format is Y-m-d, or Unix timestamp format. The default $<i>fmt</i> is
2591 Y-m-d.</font></p>
2592 <p><font><b>UserTimeStamp<a name="usertimestamp"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></font></p>
2593 <p><font>Converts the timestamp string $<b>str</b> to another
2594 format. The timestamp format is Y-m-d H:i:s, as in '2002-02-28 23:00:12',
2595 or Unix timestamp format. UserTimeStamp calls UnixTimeStamp to parse $<i>str</i>,
2596 and $<i>fmt</i> defaults to Y-m-d H:i:s if not defined. </font></p>
2597 <p><font><b>UnixDate<a name="unixdate"></a>($str)</b></font></p>
2598 <p><font>Parses the date string $<b>str</b> and returns it in
2599 unix mktime format (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January 1st,
2600 1970). Expects the date to be in Y-m-d H:i:s format, except for Sybase and
2601 Microsoft SQL Server, where M d Y is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings
2602 are controlled by a global array, which might need localisation).</font></p>
2603 <p><font>This function is available in both ADORecordSet and
2604 ADOConnection since 1.91.</font></p>
2605 <p><font><b>UnixTimeStamp<a name="unixtimestamp"></a>($str)</b></font></p>
2606 <p><font>Parses the timestamp string $<b>str</b> and returns
2607 it in unix mktime format (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January
2608 1st, 1970). Expects the date to be in "Y-m-d, H:i:s" (1970-12-24, 00:00:00)
2609 or "Y-m-d H:i:s" (1970-12-24 00:00:00) or "YmdHis" (19701225000000) format,
2610 except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where "M d Y h:i:sA" (Dec 25
2611 1970 00:00:00AM) is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled
2612 by a global array, which might need localisation).</font></p>
2613 <font>
2614 </font><p><font>This function is available in both ADORecordSet
2615 and ADOConnection since 1.91. </font></p>
2616 <p><font><b>OffsetDate<a name="offsetdate"></a>($dayFraction,
2617 $basedate=false)</b></font></p>
2618 <p><font>Returns a string with the native SQL functions to calculate
2619 future and past dates based on $basedate in a portable fashion. If $basedate
2620 is not defined, then the current date (at 12 midnight) is used. Returns the
2621 SQL string that performs the calculation when passed to Execute(). </font></p>
2622 <p><font>For example, in Oracle, to find the date and time that
2623 is 2.5 days from today, you can use:</font></p>
2624 <pre><font># get date one week from now<br>$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(7); // returns "(trunc(sysdate)+7")</font></pre>
2625 <pre><font># get date and time that is 60 hours from current date and time<br>$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(2.5, $conn-&gt;sysTimeStamp); // returns "(sysdate+2.5)"<br><br>$conn-&gt;Execute("UPDATE TABLE SET dodate=$fld WHERE ID=$id");</font></pre>
2626 <p><font> This function is available for mysql, mssql, oracle, oci8 and postgresql drivers
2627 since 2.13. It might work with other drivers provided they allow performing
2628 numeric day arithmetic on dates.</font></p>
2629 <font> </font>
2630 <p><font><b>SQLDate<a name="sqldate"></a>($dateFormat, $basedate=false)</b></font></p>
2631 <font>Returns a string which contains the native SQL functions
2632 to format a date or date column $basedate. This is used in SELECT statements.
2633 For INSERT/UPDATE statements, use <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>. It uses a case-sensitive
2634 $dateFormat, which supports: </font>
2635 <pre><font>
2636 Y: 4-digit Year
2637 Q: Quarter (1-4)
2638 M: Month (Jan-Dec)
2639 m: Month (01-12)
2640 d: Day (01-31)
2641 H: Hour (00-23)
2642 h: Hour (1-12)
2643 i: Minute (00-59)
2644 s: Second (00-60)
2645 A: AM/PM indicator
2646 w: day of week (0-6 or 1-7 depending on DB)
2647 l: day of week (as string - lowercase L)
2648 W: week in year (0..53 for MySQL, 1..53 for PostgreSQL and Oracle)
2649 </font></pre>
2650 <p><font>All other characters are treated as strings. You can
2651 also use \ to escape characters. Available on selected databases, including
2652 mysql, postgresql, mssql, oci8 and DB2. </font></p>
2653 <p><font>This is useful in writing portable sql statements that
2654 GROUP BY on dates. For example to display total cost of goods sold broken
2655 by quarter (dates are stored in a field called postdate): </font></p>
2656 <pre><font> $sqlfn = $db-&gt;SQLDate('Y-\QQ','postdate'); # get sql that formats postdate to output 2002-Q1<br> $sql = "SELECT $sqlfn,SUM(cogs) FROM table GROUP BY $sqlfn ORDER BY 1 desc";<br> </font></pre>
2657 <p><font><b>MoveNext<a name="movenext"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2658 <p><font>Move the internal cursor to the next row. The <i>$this-&gt;fields</i> array
2659 is automatically updated. Returns false if unable to do so (normally because
2660 EOF has been reached), otherwise true. </font></p>
2661 <p><font> If EOF is reached, then the $this-&gt;fields array
2662 is set to false (this was only implemented consistently in ADOdb 3.30). For
2663 the pre-3.30 behaviour of $this-&gt;fields (at EOF), set the global variable
2664 $ADODB_COMPAT_FETCH = true.</font></p>
2665 <p><font>Example:</font></p>
2666 <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if ($rs) <br> while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {<br> ProcessArray($rs-&gt;fields); <br> $rs-&gt;MoveNext();<br> } </font></pre>
2667 <p><font><b>Move<a name="move"></a>($to)</b></font></p>
2668 <p><font>Moves the internal cursor to a specific row $<b>to</b>.
2669 Rows are zero-based eg. 0 is the first row. The <b>fields</b> array is automatically
2670 updated. For databases that do not support scrolling internally, ADOdb will
2671 simulate forward scrolling. Some databases do not support backward scrolling.
2672 If the $<b>to</b> position is after the EOF, $<b>to</b> will move to the
2673 end of the RecordSet for most databases. Some obscure databases using odbc
2674 might not behave this way.</font></p>
2675 <p><font>Note: This function uses <i>absolute positioning</i>,
2676 unlike Microsoft's ADO.</font></p>
2677 <p><font>Returns true or false. If false, the internal cursor
2678 is not moved in most implementations, so AbsolutePosition( ) will return
2679 the last cursor position before the Move( ). </font></p>
2680 <p><font><b>MoveFirst<a name="movefirst"></a>()</b></font></p>
2681 <p><font>Internally calls Move(0). Note that some databases do
2682 not support this function.</font></p>
2683 <p><font><b>MoveLast<a name="movelast"></a>()</b></font></p>
2684 <p><font>Internally calls Move(RecordCount()-1). Note that some
2685 databases do not support this function.</font></p>
2686 <p><font><b>GetRowAssoc</b><a name="getrowassoc"></a>($toUpper=true)</font></p>
2687 <p><font>Returns an associative array containing the current
2688 row. The keys to the array are the column names. The column names are upper-cased
2689 for easy access. To get the next row, you will still need to call MoveNext(). </font></p>
2690 <p><font>For example:<br>
2691 Array ( [ID] =&gt; 1 [FIRSTNAME] =&gt; Caroline [LASTNAME] =&gt; Miranda [CREATED]
2692 =&gt; 2001-07-05 ) </font></p>
2693 <p><font>Note: do not use GetRowAssoc() with $ADODB_FETCH_MODE
2694 = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Because they have the same functionality, they will
2695 interfere with each other.</font></p>
2696 <font>
2697 </font><p><font><b>AbsolutePage<a name="absolutepage"></a>($page=-1) </b></font></p>
2698 <p><font>Returns the current page. Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called.
2699 See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</font></p>
2700 <font>
2701 <p><b>AtFirstPage<a name="atfirstpage">($status='')</a></b></p>
2702 <p>Returns true if at first page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute()
2703 to be called. See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</p>
2704 <p><b>AtLastPage<a name="atlastpage">($status='')</a></b></p>
2705 <p>Returns true if at last page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute()
2706 to be called. See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</p>
2707 <p><b>Fields</b><a name="fields"></a>(<b>$colname</b>)</p>
2708 <p>Returns the value of the associated column $<b>colname</b> for the current
2709 row. The column name is case-insensitive.</p>
2710 <p>This is a convenience function. For higher performance, use <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>. </p>
2711 <p><b>FetchRow</b><a name="fetchrow"></a>()</p>
2712 </font><p><font>Returns array containing current row, or false
2713 if EOF. FetchRow( ) internally moves to the next record after returning the
2714 current row. </font></p>
2715 <p><font>Warning: Do not mix using FetchRow() with MoveNext().</font></p>
2716 <p><font>Usage:</font></p>
2717 <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if ($rs)<br> while ($arr = $rs-&gt;FetchRow()) {<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;# process $arr <br> }</font></pre>
2718 <p><font><b>FetchInto</b><a name="fetchinto"></a>(<b>&amp;$array</b>)</font></p>
2719 <p><font> Sets $array to the current row. Returns PEAR_Error
2720 object if EOF, 1 if ok (DB_OK constant). If PEAR is undefined, false is returned
2721 when EOF. FetchInto( ) internally moves to the next record after returning
2722 the current row. </font></p>
2723 <p><font> FetchRow() is easier to use. See above.</font></p>
2724 <font> </font>
2725 <p><font><b>FetchField<a name="fetchfield"></a>($column_number)</b></font></p>
2726 <p><font>Returns an object containing the <b>name</b>, <b>type</b> and <b>max_length</b> of
2727 the associated field. If the max_length cannot be determined reliably, it
2728 will be set to -1. The column numbers are zero-based. See <a href="#ex2">example
2729 2.</a></font></p>
2730 <p><font><b>FieldCount<a name="fieldcount"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2731 <p><font>Returns the number of fields (columns) in the record
2732 set.</font></p>
2733 <p><font><b>RecordCount<a name="recordcount"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2734 <p><font>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the
2735 number of records returned cannot be determined from the database driver
2736 API, we will buffer all rows and return a count of the rows after all the
2737 records have been retrieved. This buffering can be disabled (for performance
2738 reasons) by setting the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false. When disabled,
2739 RecordCount( ) will return -1 for certain databases. See the supported databases
2740 list above for more details. </font></p>
2741 <p><font> RowCount is a synonym for RecordCount.</font></p>
2742 <p><font><b>PO_RecordCount<a name="po_recordcount"></a>($table,
2743 $where)</b></font></p>
2744 <p><font>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the
2745 database does not support this, it will perform a SELECT COUNT(*) on the
2746 table $table, with the given $where condition to return an estimate of the
2747 recordset size.</font></p>
2748 <p><font>$numrows = $rs-&gt;PO_RecordCount("articles_table", "group=$group");</font></p>
2749 <font><b> NextRecordSet<a name="nextrecordset" id="nextrecordset"></a>()</b> </font>
2750 <p><font>For databases that allow multiple recordsets to be returned
2751 in one query, this function allows you to switch to the next recordset. Currently
2752 only supported by mssql driver.</font></p>
2753 <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('execute return_multiple_rs');<br>$arr1 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();<br>$rs-&gt;NextRecordSet();<br>$arr2 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();</font></pre>
2754 <p><font><b>FetchObject<a name="fetchobject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></font></p>
2755 <p><font>Returns the current row as an object. If you set $toupper
2756 to true, then the object fields are set to upper-case. Note: The newer FetchNextObject()
2757 is the recommended way of accessing rows as objects. See below.</font></p>
2758 <p><font><b>FetchNextObject<a name="fetchnextobject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></font></p>
2759 <p><font>Gets the current row as an object and moves to the next
2760 row automatically. Returns false if at end-of-file. If you set $toupper to
2761 true, then the object fields are set to upper-case. Note that for some drivers such as mssql, you need to SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC) or SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_BOTH).</font></p>
2762 <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select firstname,lastname from table');<br>if ($rs) {<br> while ($o = $rs-&gt;FetchNextObject()) {<br> print "$o-&gt;FIRSTNAME, $o-&gt;LASTNAME&lt;BR&gt;";<br> }<br>}<br></font></pre>
2763 <p><font>There is some trade-off in speed in using FetchNextObject().
2764 If performance is important, you should access rows with the <code>fields[]</code> array. <b>FetchObj<a name="fetchobj" id="fetchobj"></a>()</b> </font></p>
2765 <p><font>Returns the current record as an object. Fields are
2766 not upper-cased, unlike FetchObject.
2767 </font></p>
2768 <p><font><b>FetchNextObj<a name="fetchnextobj" id="fetchnextobj"></a>()</b> </font></p>
2769 <p><font>Returns the current record as an object and moves to
2770 the next record. If EOF, false is returned. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike
2771 FetctNextObject. </font></p>
2772 <font>
2773 <p><b>CurrentRow<a name="currentrow"></a>( )</b></p>
2774 <p>Returns the current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
2775 <p><b>AbsolutePosition<a name="abspos"></a>( )</b></p>
2776 <p>Synonym for <b>CurrentRow</b> for compatibility with ADO. Returns the current
2777 row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
2778 <p><b>MetaType<a name="metatype"></a>($nativeDBType[,$field_max_length],[$fieldobj])</b></p>
2779 <p>Determine what <i>generic</i> meta type a database field type is given its
2780 native type $<b>nativeDBType</b> as a string and the length of the field $<b>field_max_length</b>.
2781 Note that field_max_length can be -1 if it is not known. The field object returned
2782 by FetchField() can be passed in $<b>fieldobj</b> or as the 1st parameter <b>$nativeDBType</b>.
2783 This is useful for databases such as <i>mysql</i> which has additional properties
2784 in the field object such as <i>primary_key</i>. </p>
2785 <p>Uses the field <b>blobSize</b> and compares it with $<b>field_max_length</b> to
2786 determine whether the character field is actually a blob.</p>
2787 For example, $db-&gt;MetaType('char') will return 'C'.
2788 <p>Returns:</p>
2789 <ul>
2790 <li><b>C</b>: Character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type="text"&gt; tag. </li>
2791 <li><b>X</b>: Clob (character large objects), or large text fields that should
2792 be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
2793 <li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
2794 <li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
2795 <li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
2796 <li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes decimal, numeric, floating point, and
2797 real. </li>
2798 <li><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer field. </li>
2799 <li><b>R</b>: Counter or Autoincrement field. Must be numeric.</li>
2800 <li><b>B</b>: Blob, or binary large objects. </li>
2801 </ul>
2802 </font><p><font> Since ADOdb 3.0, MetaType accepts $fieldobj
2803 as the first parameter, instead of $nativeDBType. </font></p>
2804 <font> </font>
2805 <p><font><b>Close( )<a name="rsclose"></a></b></font></p>
2806 <p><font>Closes the recordset, cleaning all memory and resources
2807 associated with the recordset. </font></p>
2808 <p>
2809 <font>If memory management is not an issue, you do not need to
2810 call this function as recordsets are closed for you by PHP at the end of the
2811 script. SQL statements such as INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE do not really return a recordset,
2812 so you do not have to call Close() for such SQL statements.</font></p>
2813 <hr />
2814 <h3><font>function rs2html<a name="rs2html"></a>($adorecordset,[$tableheader_attributes],
2815 [$col_titles])</font></h3>
2816 <p><font>This is a standalone function (rs2html = recordset to
2817 html) that is similar to PHP's <i>odbc_result_all</i> function, it prints
2818 a ADORecordSet, $<b>adorecordset</b> as a HTML table. $<b>tableheader_attributes</b> allow
2819 you to control the table <i>cellpadding</i>, <i>cellspacing</i> and <i>border</i> attributes.
2820 Lastly you can replace the database column names with your own column titles
2821 with the array $<b>col_titles</b>. This is designed more as a quick debugging
2822 mechanism, not a production table recordset viewer.</font></p>
2823 <p><font>You will need to include the file <i>tohtml.inc.php</i>.</font></p>
2824 <p><font>Example of rs2html:<b><font color="#336600"><a name="exrs2html"></a></font></b></font></p>
2825 <pre><font><b><font color="#336600">&lt;?<br>include('tohtml.inc.php')</font></b>; # load code common to ADOdb <br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb <br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a connection <br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers'; <br>$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($sql); <br><font color="#336600"><b>rs2html</b></font><b>($<font color="#663300">rs</font>,'<i>border=2 cellpadding=3</i>',array('<i>Customer Name','Customer ID</i>'));<br>?&gt;</b></font></pre>
2826 <hr />
2827 <h3><font>Differences between this ADOdb library and Microsoft
2828 ADO<a name="adodiff"></a></font></h3>
2829 <ol>
2830 <font>
2831 <li>ADOdb only supports recordsets created by a connection object. Recordsets
2832 cannot be created independently.</li>
2833 <li>ADO properties are implemented as functions in ADOdb. This makes it easier
2834 to implement any enhanced ADO functionality in the future.</li>
2835 <li>ADOdb's <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;Move()</font> uses
2836 absolute positioning, not relative. Bookmarks are not supported.</li>
2837 <li><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;AbsolutePosition() </font>cannot
2838 be used to move the record cursor.</li>
2839 <li>ADO Parameter objects are not supported. Instead we have the ADOConnection::<a href="#parameter">Parameter</a>(
2840 ) function, which provides a simpler interface for calling preparing parameters
2841 and calling stored procedures.</li>
2842 <li>Recordset properties for paging records are available, but implemented as
2843 in <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</li>
2844 </font></ol>
2845 <hr />
2846 <h1><font>Database Driver Guide<a name="driverguide"></a></font></h1>
2847 <p><font>This describes how to create a class to connect to a
2848 new database. To ensure there is no duplication of work, kindly email me
2849 at jlim#natsoft.com.my if you decide to create such a class.</font></p>
2850 <p><font>First decide on a name in lower case to call the database
2851 type. Let's say we call it xbase. </font></p>
2852 <p><font>Then we need to create two classes ADODB_xbase and ADORecordSet_xbase
2853 in the file adodb-xbase.inc.php.</font></p>
2854 <p><font>The simplest form of database driver is an adaptation
2855 of an existing ODBC driver. Then we just need to create the class <i>ADODB_xbase
2856 extends ADODB_odbc</i> to support the new <b>date</b> and <b>timestamp</b> formats,
2857 the <b>concatenation</b> operator used, <b>true</b> and <b>false</b>. For
2858 the<i> ADORecordSet_xbase extends ADORecordSet_odbc </i>we need to change
2859 the <b>MetaType</b> function. See<b> adodb-vfp.inc.php</b> as an example.</font></p>
2860 <p><font>More complicated is a totally new database driver that
2861 connects to a new PHP extension. Then you will need to implement several
2862 functions. Fortunately, you do not have to modify most of the complex code.
2863 You only need to override a few stub functions. See <b>adodb-mysql.inc.php</b> for
2864 example.</font></p>
2865 <p><font>The default date format of ADOdb internally is YYYY-MM-DD
2866 (Ansi-92). All dates should be converted to that format when passing to an
2867 ADOdb date function. See Oracle for an example how we use ALTER SESSION to
2868 change the default date format in _pconnect _connect.</font></p>
2869 <p><font><b>ADOConnection Functions to Override</b></font></p>
2870 <p><font>Defining a constructor for your ADOConnection derived
2871 function is optional. There is no need to call the base class constructor.</font></p>
2872 <p><font>_<b>connect</b>: Low level imple